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PPAR Research
Volume 2010, Article ID 409168, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/409168
Review Article

PPARG: Gene Expression Regulation and Next-Generation Sequencing for Unsolved Issues

1Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “Adriano Buzzati-Traverso” (IGB), CNR, 80131 Naples, Italy
2“Centro Diagnostico San Ciro” (CDS), 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
3Department of General Pathology, 1st School of Medicine, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples, Italy

Received 10 May 2010; Accepted 8 July 2010

Academic Editor: Chih-Hao Lee

Copyright © 2010 Valerio Costa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR ) is one of the most extensively studied ligand-inducible transcription factors (TFs), able to modulate its transcriptional activity through conformational changes. It is of particular interest because of its pleiotropic functions: it plays a crucial role in the expression of key genes involved in adipogenesis, lipid and glucid metabolism, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer. Its protein isoforms, the wide number of PPAR target genes, ligands, and coregulators contribute to determine the complexity of its function. In addition, the presence of genetic variants is likely to affect expression levels of target genes although the impact of PPARG gene variations on the expression of target genes is not fully understood. The introduction of massively parallel sequencing platforms—in the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) era—has revolutionized the way of investigating the genetic causes of inherited diseases. In this context, DNA-Seq for identifying—within both coding and regulatory regions of PPARG gene—novel nucleotide variations and haplotypes associated to human diseases, ChIP-Seq for defining a PPAR binding map, and RNA-Seq for unraveling the wide and intricate gene pathways regulated by PPARG, represent incredible steps toward the understanding of PPAR in health and disease.