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PPAR Research
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 435689, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/435689
Review Article

PPARs: Nuclear Receptors Controlled by, and Controlling, Nutrient Handling through Nuclear and Cytosolic Signaling

1Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi del Sannio, Via Port'Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento, Italy
2Dipartimento delle Scienze Biologiche, Sezione Fisiologia ed Igiene, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli, Italy
3Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy

Received 28 March 2010; Revised 31 May 2010; Accepted 30 June 2010

Academic Editor: Yaacov Barak

Copyright © 2010 Maria Moreno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are known to regulate lipid homeostasis, are tightly controlled by nutrient availability, and they control nutrient handling. In this paper, we focus on how nutrients control the expression and action of PPARs and how cellular signaling events regulate the action of PPARs in metabolically active tissues (e.g., liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and white adipose tissue). We address the structure and function of the PPARs, and their interaction with other nuclear receptors, including PPAR cross-talk. We further discuss the roles played by different kinase pathways, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), and the NAD+-regulated protein deacetylase SIRT1, serving to control the activity of the PPARs themselves as well as that of a key nutrient-related PPAR coactivator, PPAR coactivator-1 (PGC-1 ). We also highlight how currently applied nutrigenomic strategies will increase our understanding on how nutrients regulate metabolic homeostasis through PPAR signaling.