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PPAR Research
Volume 2013, Article ID 701017, 8 pages
Research Article

Pseudoginsenoside F11, a Novel Partial PPARγ Agonist, Promotes Adiponectin Oligomerization and Secretion in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

1MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China

Received 3 August 2013; Revised 30 September 2013; Accepted 2 October 2013

Academic Editor: Richard P. Phipps

Copyright © 2013 Guoyu Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor that functions as a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and development. Full PPARγ agonists, such as the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), have been widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. However, they are characterized by undesirable side effects due to their strong agonist activities. Pseudoginsenoside F11 (p-F11) is an ocotillol-type ginsenoside isolated from Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng). In this study, we found that p-F11 activates PPARγ with modest adipogenic activity. In addition, p-F11 promotes adiponectin oligomerization and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also found that p-F11 inhibits obesity-linked phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser-273 by Cdk5. Therefore, p-F11 is a novel partial PPARγ agonist, which might have the potential to be developed as a new PPARγ-targeted therapeutics for type 2 diabetes.