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PPAR Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 626319, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/626319
Research Article

Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor (PPAR)-γ Ligand, but Not PPAR-α, Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rat Liver

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia 61511, Egypt
2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia 61511, Egypt

Received 31 August 2013; Revised 9 March 2014; Accepted 10 March 2014; Published 2 April 2014

Academic Editor: Howard P. Glauert

Copyright © 2014 Azza A. K. El-Sheikh and Rehab A. Rifaai. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hepatoprotective potential of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)-α and -γ agonists, fenofibrate (FEN), and pioglitazone (PIO), respectively, against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced toxicity has been investigated in rat. FEN and PIO (150 and 10 mg/kg/day, resp.) were given orally for 4 weeks. In separate groups, CP (150 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected as a single dose 5 days before the end of experiment, with or without either PPAR agonist. CP induced hepatotoxicity, as it caused histopathological alterations, with increased serum alanine and aspartate transaminases, total bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. CP caused hepatic oxidative stress, indicated by decrease in tissue reduced glutathione, with increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. CP also caused decrease in hepatic antioxidant enzyme levels, including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Furthermore, CP increased serum and hepatic levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, evaluated using ELISA. Preadministration of PIO, but not FEN, prior to CP challenge improved hepatic function and histology, and significantly reversed oxidative and inflammatory parameters. In conclusion, activation of PPAR-γ, but not PPAR-α, conferred protection against CP-induced hepatotoxicity, via activation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and may serve as supplement during CP chemotherapy.