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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 3187491, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3187491
Review Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subpopulations: Application for Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine

1Departamento de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Monterrey, NL, Mexico
2Unidad de Terapias Experimentales, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Monterrey, NL, Mexico
3Unidad de Neurociencias, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Monterrey, NL, Mexico

Received 27 April 2016; Revised 10 July 2016; Accepted 7 August 2016

Academic Editor: Bin Li

Copyright © 2016 Vanessa Pérez-Silos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Research on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continues to progress rapidly. Nevertheless, the field faces several challenges, such as inherent cell heterogeneity and the absence of unique MSCs markers. Due to MSCs’ ability to differentiate into multiple tissues, these cells represent a promising tool for new cell-based therapies. However, for tissue engineering applications, it is critical to start with a well-defined cell population. Additionally, evidence that MSCs subpopulations may also feature distinct characteristics and regeneration potential has arisen. In this report, we present an overview of the identification of MSCs based on the expression of several surface markers and their current tissue sources. We review the use of MSCs subpopulations in recent years and the main methodologies that have addressed their isolation, and we emphasize the most-used surface markers for selection, isolation, and characterization. Next, we discuss the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation from MSCs subpopulations. We conclude that MSCs subpopulation selection is not a minor concern because each subpopulation has particular potential for promoting the differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The accurate selection of the subpopulation advances possibilities suitable for preclinical and clinical studies and determines the safest and most efficacious regeneration process.