Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4709572, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4709572
Review Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

1Hematopoiesis and Leukemia Laboratory, Research Unit on Cell Differentiation and Cancer, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 09230 Mexico City, MEX, Mexico
2Research Unit on Gerontology, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 09230 Mexico City, MEX, Mexico

Received 18 June 2015; Accepted 9 August 2015

Academic Editor: Daria Nurzynska

Copyright © 2016 Edgar Ledesma-Martínez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. M. Sedgley and T. M. Botero, “Dental stem cells and their sources,” Dental Clinics of North America, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 549–561, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F.-M. Chen, H.-H. Sun, H. Lu, and Q. Yu, “Stem cell-delivery therapeutics for periodontal tissue regeneration,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 27, pp. 6320–6344, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Z. Racz, K. Kadar, A. Foldes et al., “Immunomodulatory and potential therapeutic role of mesenchymal stem cells in periodontitis,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 327–339, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. Carini, G. Menchini Fabris, E. Biagi, A. Salvade', L. Sbordone, and M. Baldoni, “Estudio experimental sobre la utilización de células madre humanas en la terapia de los defectos periodontales: resultados preliminares,” Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 97–107, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Gronthos, J. Brahim, W. Li et al., “Stem cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 531–535, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Zhang, J.-H. Li, J.-A. Wang, and H.-K. Zhang, “The effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on diabetic cardiomyopathy,” Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1115–1119, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. J. Baume, “The biology of pulp and dentine. A historic, terminologic-taxonomic, histologic-biochemical, embryonic and clinical survey,” Monographs in Oral Science, vol. 8, pp. 1–220, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Goldberg and A. J. Smith, “Cells and extracellular matrices of dentin and pulp: a biological basis for repair and tissue engineering,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 13–27, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C.-C. Chang, K.-C. Chang, S.-J. Tsai, H.-H. Chang, and C.-P. Lin, “Neurogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells to neuron-like cells in dopaminergic and motor neuronal inductive media,” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 113, no. 12, pp. 956–965, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. A. Volponi, Y. Pang, and P. T. Sharpe, “Stem cell-based biological tooth repair and regeneration,” Trends in Cell Biology, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 715–722, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Dimitrova-Nakov, A. Baudry, Y. Harichane, O. Kellermann, and M. Goldberg, “Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. S13–S18, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Tziafas, A. J. Smith, and H. Lesot, “Designing new treatment strategies in vital pulp therapy,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 77–92, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. About, “Dentin–pulp regeneration: the primordial role of the microenvironment and its modification by traumatic injuries and bioactive materials,” Endodontic Topics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 61–89, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. E. J. Gang, D. Bosnakovski, C. A. Figueiredo, J. W. Visser, and R. C. R. Perlingeiro, “SSEA-4 identifies mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 1743–1751, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Gronthos, A. C. W. Zannettino, S. J. Hay et al., “Molecular and cellular characterisation of highly purified stromal stem cells derived from human bone marrow,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 116, no. 9, pp. 1827–1835, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. E. Haynesworth, M. A. Barer, and A. I. Caplan, “Cell surface antigens on human marrow-derived mesenchymal cells are detected by monoclonal antibodies,” Bone, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 69–80, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Martinez, T. J. Hofmann, R. Marino, M. Dominici, and E. M. Horwitz, “Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells express the neural ganglioside GD2: a novel surface marker for the identification of MSCs,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 10, pp. 4245–4248, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Quirici, D. Soligo, P. Bossolasco, F. Servida, C. Lumini, and G. L. Deliliers, “Isolation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by anti-nerve growth factor receptor antibodies,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 783–791, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Espagnolle, F. Guilloton, F. Deschaseaux, M. Gadelorge, L. Sensébé, and P. Bourin, “CD146 expression on mesenchymal stem cells is associated with their vascular smooth muscle commitment,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 104–114, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. Sonoyama, Y. Liu, D. Fang et al., “Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in Swine,” PLoS ONE, vol. 1, no. 1, article e79, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Akpinar, M. Kasap, A. Aksoy, G. Duruksu, G. Gacar, and E. Karaoz, “Phenotypic and proteomic characteristics of human dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells from a natal, an exfoliated deciduous, and an impacted third molar tooth,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2014, Article ID 457059, 19 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Suchánek, B. Visek, T. Soukup et al., “Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth—isolation, long term cultivation and phenotypical analysis,” Acta Medica, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 93–99, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Kawashima, “Characterisation of dental pulp stem cells: a new horizon for tissue regeneration?” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1439–1458, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. B. Werle, D. Lindemann, D. Steffens et al., “Carious deciduous teeth are a potential source for dental pulp stem cells,” Clinical Oral Investigations, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. A. F. Bray, R. R. Cevallos, K. Gazarian, and M. Lamas, “Human dental pulp stem cells respond to cues from the rat retina and differentiate to express the retinal neuronal marker rhodopsin,” Neuroscience, vol. 280, pp. 142–155, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. Govindasamy, A. N. Abdullah, V. S. Ronald et al., “Inherent differential propensity of dental pulp stem cells derived from human deciduous and permanent teeth,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1504–1515, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Lindemann, S. B. Werle, D. Steffens, F. Garcia-Godoy, P. Pranke, and L. Casagrande, “Effects of cryopreservation on the characteristics of dental pulp stem cells of intact deciduous teeth,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 970–976, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Pivoriūnas, A. Surovas, V. Borutinskaitė et al., “Proteomic analysis of stromal cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1081–1093, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Laino, R. d'Aquino, A. Graziano et al., “Dental pulp stem cells can be detected in aged humans: an useful source for living autologous fibrous bone tissue (LAB),” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1394–1402, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  30. B. Lindroos, K. Mäenpää, T. Ylikomi, H. Oja, R. Suuronen, and S. Miettinen, “Characterisation of human dental stem cells and buccal mucosa fibroblasts,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 368, no. 2, pp. 329–335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Shoi, K. Aoki, K. Ohya, Y. Takagi, and H. Shimokawa, “Characterization of pulp and follicle stem cells from impacted supernumerary maxillary incisors,” Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 79E–84E, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  32. N. Ishkitiev, K. Yaegaki, B. Calenic et al., “Deciduous and permanent dental pulp mesenchymal cells acquire hepatic morphologic and functional features in vitro,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 469–474, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K.-L. Yang, M.-F. Chen, C.-H. Liao, C.-Y. Pang, and P.-Y. Lin, “A simple and efficient method for generating Nurr1-positive neuronal stem cells from human wisdom teeth (tNSC) and the potential of tNSC for stroke therapy,” Cytotherapy, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 606–617, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y.-Y. Jo, H.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Kook et al., “Isolation and characterization of postnatal stem cells from human dental tissues,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 767–773, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Liu, J. Ling, X. Wei, L. Wu, and Y. Xiao, “Stem cell regulatory gene expression in human adult dental pulp and periodontal ligament cells undergoing odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1368–1376, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. L. Dissanayaka, X. Zhu, C. Zhang, and L. Jin, “Characterization of dental pulp stem cells isolated from canine premolars,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1074–1080, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. Kerkis, A. Kerkis, D. Dozortsev et al., “Isolation and characterization of a population of immature dental pulp stem cells expressing OCT-4 and other embryonic stem cell markers,” Cells Tissues Organs, vol. 184, no. 3-4, pp. 105–116, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Mafi, S. Hindocha, R. Mafi, M. Griffin, and W. Khan, “Adult mesenchymal stem cells and cell surface characterization—a systematic review of the literature,” The Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 253–260, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. La Noce, F. Paino, A. Spina et al., “Dental pulp stem cells: state of the art and suggestions for a true translation of research into therapy,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 761–768, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. R. Navabazam, F. S. Nodoshan, M. H. Sheikhha, S. M. Miresmacili, M. Solcimani, and F. Fesahat, “Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human dental pulp, preapical follicle and periodontal ligament,” Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 235–242, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Iohara, L. Zheng, M. Ito, A. Tomokiyo, K. Matsushita, and M. Nakashima, “Side population cells isolated from porcine dental pulp tissue with self-renewal and multipotency for dentinogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, and neurogenesis,” Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2493–2503, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Nakashima, K. Iohara, and M. Sugiyama, “Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration,” Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 435–440, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. J. Alongi, T. Yamaza, Y. Song et al., “Stem/progenitor cells from inflamed human dental pulp retain tissue regeneration potential,” Regenerative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 617–631, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Miura, S. Gronthos, M. Zhao et al., “SHED: stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 10, pp. 5807–5812, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Shi, P. M. Bartold, M. Miura, B. M. Seo, P. G. Robey, and S. Gronthos, “The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate and repair dental structures,” Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 191–199, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. T. Sakai, Z. Zhang, Z. Dong et al., “SHED differentiate into functional odontoblasts and endothelium,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 791–796, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, W. Katagiri, T. Sugito, K. Ito, and M. Ueda, “Stem cell proliferation pathways comparison between human exfoliated deciduous teeth and dental pulp stem cells by gene expression profile from promising dental pulp,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1536–1542, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. U. Nekanti, V. B. Rao, A. G. Bahirvani, M. Jan, S. Totey, and M. Ta, “Long-term expansion and pluripotent marker array analysis of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 117–130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Dahlstrand, M. Lardelli, and U. Lendahl, “Nestin mRNA expression correlates with the central nervous system progenitor cell state in many, but not all, regions of developing central nervous system,” Developmental Brain Research, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 109–129, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. V. Tirino, F. Paino, A. De Rosa, and G. Papaccio, “Identification, isolation, characterization, and banking of human dental pulp stem cells,” in Somatic Stem Cells, pp. 443–463, Springer, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  51. R. D'Aquino, A. De Rosa, V. Lanza et al., “Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and collagen sponge biocomplexes,” European Cells and Materials, vol. 18, no. 7, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. H.-C. Huang, Y.-K. Chen, L.-M. Lin, T.-Y. Shieh, and A. W.-S. Chan, “Isolation and characterization of dental pulp stem cells from a supernumerary tooth,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 571–574, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Gronthos, M. Mankani, J. Brahim, P. G. Robey, and S. Shi, “Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 25, pp. 13625–13630, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. E. Nör, “Buonocore memorial lecture: tooth regeneration in operative dentistry,” Operative Dentistry, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 633–642, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. S. Lunn, S. A. Sakowski, T. Federici, J. D. Glass, N. M. Boulis, and E. L. Feldman, “Stem cell technology for the study and treatment of motor neuron diseases,” Regenerative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 201–213, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Wang, X. Liu, X. Jin et al., “The odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds in vitro and in vivo,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 3856–3863, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Y. Chun, H. J. Lee, Y. A. Choi et al., “Analysis of the soluble human tooth proteome and its ability to induce dentin/tooth regeneration,” Tissue Engineering A, vol. 17, no. 1-2, pp. 181–191, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. H.-H. Sun, B. Chen, Q.-L. Zhu et al., “Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 35, pp. 9459–9472, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Batouli, M. Miura, J. Brahim et al., “Comparison of stem-cell-mediated osteogenesis and dentinogenesis,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 976–981, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. Takeda, Y. Tezuka, M. Horiuchi et al., “Characterization of dental pulp stem cells of human tooth germs,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 676–681, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Graziano, R. d'Aquino, G. Laino et al., “Human CD34+ stem cells produce bone nodules in vivo,” Cell Proliferation, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Gandia, A. N. A. Armiñan, J. M. García-Verdugo et al., “Human dental pulp stem cells improve left ventricular function, induce angiogenesis, and reduce infarct size in rats with acute myocardial infarction,” Stem Cells, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 638–645, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Ikeda, R. Morita, K. Nakao et al., “Fully functional bioengineered tooth replacement as an organ replacement therapy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 32, pp. 13475–13480, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F. F. Demarco, L. Casagrande, Z. Zhang et al., “Effects of morphogen and scaffold porogen on the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1805–1811, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J.-H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, H.-W. Choung et al., “Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells induced by preameloblast-derived factors,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 36, pp. 9696–9706, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Riccio, T. Maraldi, A. Pisciotta et al., “Fibroin scaffold repairs critical-size bone defects in vivo supported by human amniotic fluid and dental pulp stem cells,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 18, no. 9-10, pp. 1006–1013, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Lei, K. Li, B. Li, L.-N. Gao, F.-M. Chen, and Y. Jin, “Mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of dental pulp and periodontal ligament stem cells after invivo transplantation,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 6332–6343, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. L. B. Tran and V. N. Doan, “Human dental pulp stem cells cultured onto dentin derived scaffold can regenerate dentin-like tissue in vivo,” Cell and Tissue Banking, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Arthur, G. Rychkov, S. Shi, S. A. Koblar, and S. Gronthose, “Adult human dental pulp stem cells differentiate toward functionally active neurons under appropriate environmental cues,” Stem Cells, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1787–1795, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. de Mendonça Costa, D. F. Bueno, M. T. Martins et al., “Reconstruction of large cranial defects in nonimmunosuppressed experimental design with human dental pulp stem cells,” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 204–210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. M. Galler, A. C. Cavender, U. Koeklue, L. J. Suggs, G. Schmalz, and R. N. D'Souza, “Bioengineering of dental stem cells in a PEGylated fibrin gel,” Regenerative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 191–200, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Giuliani, A. Manescu, M. Langer et al., “Three years after transplants in human mandibles, histological and in-line holotomography revealed that stem cells regenerated a compact rather than a spongy bone: biological and clinical implications,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 316–324, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. Roozafzoon, A. Lashay, M. Vasei et al., “Dental pulp stem cells differentiation into retinal ganglion-like cells in a three dimensional network,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 457, no. 2, pp. 154–160, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. Spath, V. Rotilio, M. Alessandrini et al., “Explant-derived human dental pulp stem cells enhance differentiation and proliferation potentials,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1635–1644, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Hilkens, P. Gervois, Y. Fanton et al., “Effect of isolation methodology on stem cell properties and multilineage differentiation potential of human dental pulp stem cells,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 353, no. 1, pp. 65–78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Paschalidis, A. Bakopoulou, P. Papa, G. Leyhausen, W. Geurtsen, and P. Koidis, “Dental pulp stem cells' secretome enhances pulp repair processes and compensates TEGDMA-induced cytotoxicity,” Dental Materials, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. e405–e418, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Jung, K. M. Panchalingam, L. Rosenberg, and L. A. Behie, “Ex vivo expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells in defined serum-free media,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2012, Article ID 123030, 21 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. I. Kerkis and A. I. Caplan, “Stem cells in dental pulp of deciduous teeth,” Tissue Engineering—Part B: Reviews, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 129–138, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Bakopoulou, G. Leyhausen, J. Volk et al., “Assessment of the impact of two different isolation methods on the osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental stem cells derived from deciduous teeth,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 130–141, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. R. Choi, H. Y. Kim, J.-Y. Park et al., “Selection of optimal passage of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for stem cell therapy in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 472, no. 2, pp. 94–98, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. von Bahr, B. Sundberg, L. Lönnies et al., “Long-term complications, immunologic effects, and role of passage for outcome in mesenchymal stromal cell therapy,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 557–564, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. S. Harrison, P. Rameshwar, V. Chang, and P. Bandari, “Oxygen saturation in the bone marrow of healthy volunteers,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 1, p. 394, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  83. A. Mohyeldin, T. Garzón-Muvdi, and A. Quiñones-Hinojosa, “Oxygen in stem cell biology: a critical component of the stem cell niche,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 150–161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. El Alami, J. Viña-Almunia, J. Gambini et al., “Activation of p38, p21, and NRF-2 mediates decreased proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells cultured under 21% O2,” Stem Cell Reports, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 566–573, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Reinhardt, A. Stühler, and J. Blümel, “Safety of bovine sera for production of mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic use,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 775, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Eloit, “Risks of virus transmission associated with animal sera or substitutes and methods of control,” Developments in Biological Standardization, vol. 99, pp. 9–16, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. J. Wessman and R. L. Levings, “Benefits and risks due to animal serum used in cell culture production,” Developments in Biological Standardization, vol. 99, pp. 3–8, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. R. Knight, “The risk of transmitting prion disease by blood or plasma products,” Transfusion and Apheresis Science, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 387–391, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. T. Takeda-Kawaguchi, K. Sugiyama, S. Chikusa et al., “Derivation of iPSCs after culture of human dental pulp cells under defined conditions,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 12, Article ID e115392, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. Sensebé, P. Bourin, and K. Tarte, “Response to Reinhardt et al.,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 776, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Y. Yamada, K. Ito, S. Nakamura, M. Ueda, and T. Nagasaka, “Promising cell-based therapy for bone regeneration using stem cells from deciduous teeth, dental pulp, and bone marrow,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1003–1013, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Ravindran, C.-C. Huang, and A. George, “Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs,” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 4, article 395, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. W. Zhang, I. P. Ahluwalia, R. Literman, D. L. Kaplan, and P. C. Yelick, “Human dental pulp progenitor cell behavior on aqueous and hexafluoroisopropanol based silk scaffolds,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 414–422, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. G. T.-J. Huang, T. Yamaza, L. D. Shea et al., “Stem/progenitor cell–mediated de novo regeneration of dental pulp with newly deposited continuous layer of dentin in an in vivo model,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 605–615, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. D. Lu, B. Chen, Z. Liang et al., “Comparison of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells for treatment of diabetic critical limb ischemia and foot ulcer: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 26–36, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. F. Rasulov, A. V. Vasilchenkov, N. A. Onishchenko et al., “First experience of the use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of a patient with deep skin burns.,” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 141–144, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. K. Kadar, M. Kiraly, B. Porcsalmy et al., “Differentiation potential of stem cells from human dental origin-promise for tissue engineering,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 60, pp. 167–175, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. D. L. Clarke, C. B. Johansson, J. Wilbertz et al., “Generalized potential of adult neural stem cells,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5471, pp. 1660–1663, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. Galli, U. Borello, A. Gritti et al., “Skeletal myogenic potential of human and mouse neural stem cells,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 986–991, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. Ratajczak, E. Zuba-Surma, E. Paczkowska, M. Kucia, P. Nowacki, and M. Z. Ratajczak, “Stem cells for neural regeneration—a potential application of very small embryonic-like stem cells,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M. Tatullo, M. Marrelli, K. M. Shakesheff, and L. J. White, “Dental pulp stem cells: function, isolation and applications in regenerative medicine,” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. C. Basegmez, L. Berber, and F. Yalcin, “Clinical and biochemical efficacy of minocycline in nonsurgical periodontal therapy: a randomized controlled pilot study,” The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 915–922, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. B. L. Pihlstrom, B. S. Michalowicz, and N. W. Johnson, “Periodontal diseases,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9499, pp. 1809–1820, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. D. D. Bosshardt and A. Sculean, “Does periodontal tissue regeneration really work?” Periodontology 2000, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 208–219, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. B. M. Kinaia, S. M. A. Chogle, A. M. Kinaia, and H. E. Goodis, “Regenerative therapy: a periodontal-endodontic perspective,” Dental Clinics of North America, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 537–547, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. K. K. Gopal and A. M. Lankupalli, “Stem cell therapy: a new hope for dentist,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 142–144, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. Saito, E. Saito, R. Handa, Y. Honma, and M. Kawanami, “Influence of residual bone on recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced periodontal regeneration in experimental periodontitis in dogs,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 961–968, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. P. Sikirić, “Antiinflammatory effect of BPC 157 on experimental periodontitis in rats,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 115–122, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  109. L. Du, P. Yang, and S. Ge, “Stromal cell-derived factor-1 significantly induces proliferation, migration, and collagen type i expression in a human periodontal ligament stem cell subpopulation,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 379–388, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. E. Rettori, A. De Laurentiis, M. Zorrilla Zubilete, V. Rettori, and J. C. Elverdin, “Anti-inflammatory effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide in experimental periodontitis and stress in the rat,” NeuroImmunoModulation, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 293–303, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. D. J. Mooney and H. Vandenburgh, “Cell delivery mechanisms for tissue repair,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 205–213, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. F. Paino, M. La Noce, I. Tirino et al., “Histone deacetylase inhibition with valproic acid downregulates osteocalcin gene expression in human dental pulp stem cells and osteoblasts: evidence for HDAC2 involvement,” Stem Cells, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 279–289, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. R. Sasaki, S. Aoki, M. Yamato et al., “Tubulation with dental pulp cells promotes facial nerve regeneration in rats,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1141–1147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. D. Widera, W.-D. Grimm, J. M. Moebius et al., “Highly efficient neural differentiation of human somatic stem cells, isolated by minimally invasive periodontal surgery,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 447–460, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. Takahashi, T. Suzawa, A. Yamada et al., “Identification of gene expression profile of neural crest-derived cells isolated from submandibular glands of adult mice,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 446, no. 2, pp. 481–486, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. W. K. Leong, T. L. Henshall, A. Arthur et al., “Human adult dental pulp stem cells enhance poststroke functional recovery through non-neural replacement mechanisms,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 177–187, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. I. V. Nosrat, C. A. Smith, P. Mullally, L. Olson, and C. A. Nosrat, “Dental pulp cells provide neurotrophic support for dopaminergic neurons and differentiate into neurons in vitro; implications for tissue engineering and repair in the nervous system,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2388–2398, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. B. Mead, A. Logan, M. Berry, W. Leadbeater, and B. A. Scheven, “Intravitreally transplanted dental pulp stem cells promote neuroprotection and axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 7544–7556, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. G. Benítez, “Medicina regenerativa y terapia celular,” Revista Mexicana de Medicina Transfusional, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 70–77, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  120. X. Wei, X. Yang, Z.-P. Han, F.-F. Qu, L. Shao, and Y.-F. Shi, “Mesenchymal stem cells: a new trend for cell therapy,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 747–754, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus