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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 5481493, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5481493
Research Article

Modulating the Substrate Stiffness to Manipulate Differentiation of Resident Liver Stem Cells and to Improve the Differentiation State of Hepatocytes

1Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Section of Molecular Genetics, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome, Italy
2National Institute for Infectious Diseases L. Spallanzani, IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, 00149 Rome, Italy

Received 28 July 2015; Revised 12 October 2015; Accepted 13 October 2015

Academic Editor: Malin Jonsson

Copyright © 2016 Angela Maria Cozzolino et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In many cell types, several cellular processes, such as differentiation of stem/precursor cells, maintenance of differentiated phenotype, motility, adhesion, growth, and survival, strictly depend on the stiffness of extracellular matrix that, in vivo, characterizes their correspondent organ and tissue. In the liver, the stromal rigidity is essential to obtain the correct organ physiology whereas any alteration causes liver cell dysfunctions. The rigidity of the substrate is an element no longer negligible for the cultivation of several cell types, so that many data so far obtained, where cells have been cultured on plastic, could be revised. Regarding liver cells, standard culture conditions lead to the dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes, transdifferentiation of stellate cells into myofibroblasts, and loss of fenestration of sinusoidal endothelium. Furthermore, standard cultivation of liver stem/precursor cells impedes an efficient execution of the epithelial/hepatocyte differentiation program, leading to the expansion of a cell population expressing only partially liver functions and products. Overcoming these limitations is mandatory for any approach of liver tissue engineering. Here we propose cell lines as in vitro models of liver stem cells and hepatocytes and an innovative culture method that takes into account the substrate stiffness to obtain, respectively, a rapid and efficient differentiation process and the maintenance of the fully differentiated phenotype.