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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 6969726, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6969726
Research Article

Chondrogenic Potency Analyses of Donor-Matched Chondrocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow, Infrapatellar Fat Pad, and Subcutaneous Fat

ISTM, Keele University, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7AG, UK

Received 22 July 2016; Accepted 4 September 2016

Academic Editor: Wesley N. Sivak

Copyright © 2016 John Garcia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a cell-based therapy that has been used clinically for over 20 years to treat cartilage injuries more efficiently in order to negate or delay the need for joint replacement surgery. In this time, very little has changed in the ACI procedure, but now many centres are considering or using alternative cell sources for cartilage repair, in particular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we have tested the chondrogenic potential of donor-matched MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM), infrapatellar fat pad (FP), and subcutaneous fat (SCF), compared to chondrocytes. We have confirmed that there is a chondrogenic potency hierarchy ranging across these cell types, with the most potent being chondrocytes, followed by FP-MSCs, BM-MSCs, and lastly SCF-MSCs. We have also examined gene expression and surface marker profiles in a predictive model to identify cells with enhanced chondrogenic potential. In doing so, we have shown that Sox-9, Alk-1, and Coll X expressions, as well as immunopositivity for CD49c and CD39, have predictive value for all of the cell types tested in indicating chondrogenic potency. The findings from this study have significant clinical implications for the refinement and development of novel cell-based cartilage repair strategies.