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Stem Cells International
Volume 2017, Article ID 5979741, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5979741
Review Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Regeneration of TMJ Osteoarthritis

1State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Pediatric Dentistry, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China
2State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Cariology and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Liwei Zheng; nc.ude.ucs@gnehz.iewil and Yachuan Zhou; moc.kooltuo@uohzcymai

Received 26 July 2017; Accepted 6 September 2017; Published 16 October 2017

Academic Editor: Celeste Scotti

Copyright © 2017 Dixin Cui et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) is a degenerative disease, characterized by progressive cartilage degradation, subchondral bone remodeling, synovitis, and chronic pain. Due to the limited self-healing capacity in condylar cartilage, traditional clinical treatments have limited symptom-modifying and structure-modifying effects to restore impaired cartilage as well as other TMJ tissues. In recent years, stem cell-based therapy has raised much attention as an alternative approach towards tissue repair and regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from the bone marrow, synovium, and even umbilical cord, play a role as seed cells for the cartilage regeneration of TMJ OA. MSCs possess multilineage differentiation potential, including chondrogenic differentiation as well as osteogenic differentiation. In addition, the trophic modulations of MSCs exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects under aberrant conditions. Furthermore, MSCs combined with appropriate scaffolds can form cartilaginous or even osseous compartments to repair damaged tissue and impaired function of TMJ. In this review, we will briefly discuss the pathogenesis of cartilage degeneration in TMJ OA and emphasize the potential sources of MSCs and novel approaches for the cartilage regeneration of TMJ OA, particularly focusing on the MSC-based therapy and tissue engineering.