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Stem Cells International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7304121, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7304121
Review Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Sepsis and Associated Organ Dysfunction: A Promising Future or Blind Alley?

11st Medical Department, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
2Experimental Intensive Care Unit, Biomedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University, Alej Svobody 1655/76, Plzen, Czech Republic
3Third Department of Surgery, University Hospital Motol and First Medical School, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

Correspondence should be addressed to Martin Matějovič

Received 21 June 2017; Accepted 6 August 2017; Published 14 September 2017

Academic Editor: Heinrich Sauer

Copyright © 2017 Jan Horák et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sepsis, newly defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is the most common cause of death in ICUs and one of the principal causes of death worldwide. Although substantial progress has been made in the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of sepsis, translation of these advances into clinically effective therapies has been disappointing. Given the extreme complexity of sepsis pathogenesis, the paradigm “one disease, one drug” is obviously flawed and combinations of multiple targets that involve early immunomodulation and cellular protection are needed. In this context, the immune-reprogramming properties of cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent an emerging therapeutic strategy in sepsis and associated organ dysfunction. This article provides an update of the current knowledge regarding MSC in preclinical models of sepsis and sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Recommendations for further translational research in this field are discussed.