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Stem Cells International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8765154, 11 pages
Review Article

Cellular Reprogramming, Genome Editing, and Alternative CRISPR Cas9 Technologies for Precise Gene Therapy of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

1Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
2Institute for Integrated Cell Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Yoshida Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Akitsu Hotta;

Received 24 January 2017; Revised 23 March 2017; Accepted 28 March 2017; Published 18 May 2017

Academic Editor: Masatoshi Suzuki

Copyright © 2017 Peter Gee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the past decade, the development of two innovative technologies, namely, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the CRISPR Cas9 system, has enabled researchers to model diseases derived from patient cells and precisely edit DNA sequences of interest, respectively. In particular, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been an exemplary monogenic disease model for combining these technologies to demonstrate that genome editing can correct genetic mutations in DMD patient-derived iPSCs. DMD is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by mutations that disrupt the open reading frame of the dystrophin gene, which plays a critical role in stabilizing muscle cells during contraction and relaxation. The CRISPR Cas9 system has been shown to be capable of targeting the dystrophin gene and rescuing its expression in in vitro patient-derived iPSCs and in vivo DMD mouse models. In this review, we highlight recent advances made using the CRISPR Cas9 system to correct genetic mutations and discuss how emerging CRISPR technologies and iPSCs in a combined platform can play a role in bringing a therapy for DMD closer to the clinic.