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Stem Cells International
Volume 2018, Article ID 5102630, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5102630
Research Article

Regeneration of Tracheal Tissue in Partial Defects Using Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa

1Experimental Laboratory of Institute of Biological and Health Sciences of Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR), Rua Imaculada Conceição 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR, Brazil
2Center of Cytopathology of Paraná (CITOPAR), Av. Sete de Setembro 5426, 80240-220 Curitiba, PR, Brazil
3Cell Therapy and Biotechnology in Regenerative Medicine Research Group, Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Institute, Avenida Silva Jardim 1632, 80250-200 Curitiba, PR, Brazil
4Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, LM, 11 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
5Feinberg School of Medicine, Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Nelson Bergonse Neto; moc.liamg@esnogreb.noslen

Received 28 April 2017; Revised 12 October 2017; Accepted 26 October 2017; Published 26 February 2018

Academic Editor: Celeste Scotti

Copyright © 2018 Nelson Bergonse Neto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Surgical correction of tracheal defects is a complex procedure when the gold standard treatment with primary end-to-end anastomosis is not possible. An alternative treatment may be the use of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). It has been used as graft material for bioengineering applications and to promote tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SIS grafts improved tracheal tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of experimental tracheostomy. Methods. Sixteen rabbits were randomized into two groups. Animals in the control group underwent only surgical tracheostomy, while animals in the SIS group underwent surgical tracheostomy with an SIS graft covering the defect. We examined tissues at the site of tracheostomy 60 days after surgery using histological analysis with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and analyzed the perimeter and area of the defect with Image-Pro® PLUS 4.5 (Media Cybernetics). Results. The average perimeter and area of the defects were smaller by 15.3% () and 21.8% (), respectively, in the SIS group than in the control group. Histological analysis revealed immature cartilage, pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, and connective tissue in 54.5% () of the SIS group, while no cartilaginous regeneration was observed in the control group. Conclusions. Although tracheal SIS engraftment could not prevent stenosis in a rabbit model of tracheal injury, it produced some remarkable changes, efficiently facilitating neovascularization, reepithelialization, and neoformation of immature cartilage.