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Stem Cells International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 6913594, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6913594
Research Article

TGFβ1-Induced Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs Is Mediated by Changes to the Actin Cytoskeleton

1Stem Cell Unit, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2KMEB, Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Odense, Odense, Denmark
3KMEB, Department of Endocrinology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
4College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5Department of Histopathology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
7Department of Basic Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), National Guard Health Affairs, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
8Center for Genetics and Inherited Diseases, Taibah University, Medina, Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia
9Department of Comparative Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Amer Mahmood; as.ude.usk@doomhamma

Received 26 September 2017; Accepted 23 November 2017; Published 15 February 2018

Academic Editor: Andrea Ballini

Copyright © 2018 Mona Elsafadi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

TGFβ is a potent regulator of several biological functions in many cell types, but its role in the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells (hMSCs) is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that a single dose of TGFβ1 prior to induction of osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation results in increased mineralized matrix or increased numbers of lipid-filled mature adipocytes, respectively. To identify the mechanisms underlying this TGFβ-mediated enhancement of lineage commitment, we compared the gene expression profiles of TGFβ1-treated hMSC cultures using DNA microarrays. In total, 1932 genes were upregulated, and 1298 genes were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TGFβl treatment was associated with an enrichment of genes in the skeletal and extracellular matrix categories and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate further, we examined the actin cytoskeleton following treatment with TGFβ1 and/or cytochalasin D. Interestingly, cytochalasin D treatment of hMSCs enhanced adipogenic differentiation but inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Global gene expression profiling revealed a significant enrichment of pathways related to osteogenesis and adipogenesis and of genes regulated by both TGFβ1 and cytochalasin D. Our study demonstrates that TGFβ1 enhances hMSC commitment to either the osteogenic or adipogenic lineages by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton.