The Scientific World Journal / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18 m CMOS Process

Table 1

Performance comparisons of CMOS ring-VCO.

Architecture Operating frequency 
(GHz)
Tuning range 
(GHz)
Phase noise 
(dBc/Hz)
Offset 
(MHz)
Supply voltage 
(V)
Power 
(mW)
FOM 
(dBc/Hz)
CMOS process 
( m)
Published year, 
Ref.

2-stage, single delay loop0.850.186–1.5−113.50.61.811.38 −165.960.182008, [12]
3-stage, dual delay loop4.090.479–4.09−94.081110−156.280.182011, [13]
4-stage, dual delay loop1.77–1.92−123.4101.813 0.182011, [14]
3-stage, single delay loop2.42.34–3.11 (24.75%)−113101.052 −157.60.132011, [15]
3-stage, single delay loop0.8660.381–1.15−126103.37.48 −1560.352012, [16]
3-stage, single delay loop2.420.5–2.54 
(80%)
−126.4
−118
25
10
1.52.47−162.4
−161.74
0.18Proposed
work