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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 852529, 23 pages
Research Article

Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran 14778 93855, Iran
2Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran 11518 63411, Iran

Received 12 April 2014; Revised 3 July 2014; Accepted 26 July 2014; Published 16 September 2014

Academic Editor: Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi

Copyright © 2014 Amir Mohajeri and Mohammad Fallah. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.