The Scientific World Journal

The Scientific World Journal / 2014 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2014 |Article ID 951019 |

Md. Kamal Uddin, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Md Sabir Hossain, Most. Altaf Un Nahar, Md. Eaqub Ali, M. M. Rahman, "Purslane Weed (Portulaca oleracea): A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acid, and Antioxidant Attributes", The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 951019, 6 pages, 2014.

Purslane Weed (Portulaca oleracea): A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acid, and Antioxidant Attributes

Academic Editor: W. Gelderblom
Received13 Sep 2013
Accepted05 Dec 2013
Published10 Feb 2014


Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671–869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.

1. Introduction

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) deserves special attention from agriculturalists as well as nutritionists. Purslane is a common weed in turfgrass areas as well as in field crops [1, 2]. Many varieties of purslane under many names grow in a wide range of climates and regions. Purslane has wide acceptability as a potherb in Central Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. It is an important component of green salad and its soft stem and leaves are used raw, alone, or with other greens. Purslane is also used for cooking or used as a pickle. Its medicinal value is evident from its use for treatment of burns, headache, and diseases related to the intestine, liver, stomach, cough, shortness of breath, and arthritis. Its use as a purgative, cardiac tonic, emollient, muscle relaxant, and anti-inflammatory and diuretic treatment makes it important in herbal medicine. Purslane has also been used in the treatment of osteoporosis and psoriasis.

Recent research demonstrates that purslane has better nutritional quality than the major cultivated vegetables, with higher beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid [3]. Additionally, purslane has been described as a power food because of its high nutritive and antioxidant properties [4]. Different varieties, harvesting times, and environmental conditions can contribute to purslane’s nutritional composition and benefits [5].

Purslane is popular as a traditional medicine in China for the treatment of hypotension and diabetes. Scientifically, it is not proven to have antidiabetic effects, but still people use it for this purpose. An experiment has been carried out for the extraction of crude polysaccharide(s) from purslane to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of these constituents with animal tests for the use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes [6].

Purslane is a very good source of alpha-linolenic acid. Alpha-linolenic is an omega-3 fatty acid which plays an important role in human growth and development and in preventing diseases. Purslane has been shown to contain five times higher omega-3 fatty acids than spinach. Omega-3 fatty acids belong to a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human growth, development, prevention of numerous cardiovascular diseases, and maintenance of a healthy immune system [7]. Our bodies do not synthesise omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore omega-3 fatty acids must be consumed from a dietary source. Omega-3 fatty acids contain 18 to 24 carbon atoms and have three or more double bonds within its fatty acid chain [8]. Fish is the richest source of omega-3 fatty acids. Health authorities highly recommend that we consume fish regularly to meet our bodies’ requirements of omega-3 fatty acids, as other sources are limited and do not supply nearly as much omega-3 fatty acids [9]. Purslane has recently been identified as the richest vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid [10]. The lack of dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids has resulted in a growing level of interest to introduce purslane as a new cultivated vegetable [11, 12]. Purslane flourishes in numerous biogeographical locations worldwide and is highly adaptable to many adverse conditions such as drought, saline, and nutrient deficient conditions [13].

Distribution. It is reported that purslane was a common vegetable of the Roman Empire. Origin of purslane is not certain, but existence of this plant is reported about 4,000 years ago. The succulent stems and fleshy leaves of purslane reflect that it may have originated and adapted to desert climates of the Middle East and India. It can be found in Europe, Africa, North America, Australia, and Asia [14].

Botanical Classification. Portulaca oleracea is s cosmopolitan species and the genus Portulaca belongs to the family Portulacaceae, a small family with 21 genera and 580 species, and is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring especially in America with some species found in Arabia [15]. Purslane plants are succulent, annual herbaceous, and erect or decumbent up to 30 cm high. Purslane is botanically known as Portulaca oleracea and is also called portulaca.

Habitat. It grows well in orchards, vineyards, crop fields, landscaped areas, gardens, roadsides, and other disturbed sites.

Stem. Stems are cylindrical, up to 30 cm long, 2-3 mm in diameter, green or red, swollen at the nodes, smooth, glabrous apart from the leaf axils, and diffusely branched, and the internodes are 1.5–3.5 cm in length.

Leaf. Purslane leaves are alternate or subopposite, flat, fleshy, having variable shapes, obovate, 1–5 cm long, 0.5–2 cm across, obtuse or slightly notched at the apex, tapering at base, sessile or indistinctly petiolate, glabrous, smooth, and waxy on the upper surface, with entire margin, small stipules, and cluster of hairs up to 1 mm long. Leaves are egg to spatula shaped, succulent, and stalkless or have very short stalks, about 5–30 mm long, and sometimes their edges are red-tinged. Leaves are green or green with red margin.

Seedling. Cotyledons (seed leaves) are egg shaped to oblong, hairless, succulent, about 2–5 mm long, and sometimes tinged red.

Flower. Flowering initiates during May to September. Flowers originate as single or clusters of two to five at the tips of stems. The flowers are minute or small having orange yellow, purple, or white pink color with five petals and typically open only on hot and sunny days from mid-morning to early afternoon.

Fruit. Fruit consists of almost round to egg-shaped capsules, usually about 4–8 mm long that open around the middle to release the seeds. Seeds are tiny, less than 1 mm in diameter, circular to egg shaped, flattened, and brown to black with a white point of attachment. Numerous seeds are produced.

2. Health Benefits of Purslane

2.1. Nutrition

It is rich in vitamin A which is a natural antioxidant value. It can play role in vision healthy mucus membranes and to protect from lung and oral cavity cancer. Purslane contains the highest content of vitamin A among green leafy vegetables. It also contains vitamin C and B-complex vitamins like riboflavin, niacin, and pyridoxine. It provides highest dietary minerals such as potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g), calcium (65 mg/100 g), phosphorus (44 mg/100 g), and iron (1.99 mg/100 g) (Table 1).

PrincipleNutrient valuePercentage of RDA

Energy16 Kcal1.5%
Carbohydrates3.4 g3%
Protein1.30 g2%
Total Fat0.1 g0.5%
Cholesterol0 mg0%
 Folates12 μg3%
 Niacin0.480 mg3%
 Pantothenic acid0.036 mg1%
 Pyridoxine0.073 mg5.5%
 Riboflavin0.112 mg8.5%
 Thiamin0.047 mg4%
 Vitamin A1320 IU44%
 Vitamin C21 mg35%
 Sodium45 mg3%
 Potassium494 mg10.5%
 Calcium65 mg6.5%
 Copper0.113 mg12.5%
 Iron1.99 mg25%
 Magnesium68 mg17%
 Manganese0.303 mg13%
 Phosphorus44 mg6%
 Selenium0.9 μg2%
 Zinc0.17 mg1.5%

Source: USDA National Nutrient data.

The range of Ca, Mg, K, Fe, and Zn from the young stage to mature plants was from 1612 ± 27 to 1945 ± 30 mmol kg−1 DW, 2127 ± 23 to 2443 ± 27 mmol kg−1 DW, 1257 ± 10 to 1526 ± 31 mmol kg−1 DW, 218 ± 8 to 262 ± 3 mmol kg−1 DW, and 128 ± 2 to 160 ± 1 mmol kg−1 DW, respectively. On the other hand, the Na and Cl concentrations in leaves were higher at the young stage and lower at the mature stage. The Na and Cl concentrations ranged from 356 ± 4 to 278 ± 8 mmol kg−1 DW and from 82 ± 2 to 53 ± 2 mmol kg−1 DW, respectively [16].

2.2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid

Purslane is one of the richest green plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids. It has lower the cholesterol and triglyceride levels, raise the beneficial high density lipoprotein. Moreover, the ability of omega-3 fatty acids to decrease the thickness of the blood may be advantageous in the treatment of vascular diseases [3]. Unlike fish oils with their high cholesterol and calorie content, purslane also provides an excellent source of the beneficial omega-3 fatty acids without the cholesterol of fish oils, since it contains no cholesterol. There are 3 varieties of purslane, namely, the green, golden, and a large-leaved golden variety [17, 18]. Important sources of omega-3 fatty acids are summarized in Table 2. It has a low incidence of cancer and heart disease, possibly due in part to purslane’s naturally occurring omega-3 fatty acids [19].

CategoryFruits/vegetablesAmount (g)

LowAvocados, California raw0.1
Cauliflower, raw0.1
Kale, raw0.2
Spinach, raw0.1
Peas, garden dry0.2
Cowpeas, dry0.3
Beans, navy, sprouted, cooked0.3
Corn, germ 0.3

MediumBean, common dry0.6
Leeks, freeze-dried, raw0.7
Wheat, germ0.7
Spirulina, dried0.8
Oat, germ1.4
Soybeans kernels, roasted1.5
Soybeans, green3.2

HighSoybean oil6.8
Walnuts, Persian, English6.8
Wheat germ oil6.8
Walnut oil10.4
Rapeseed oil (New Puritan Oil)11.1

Source: Bulletin, US Department of Agriculture Provisional table on the content of omega-3 fatty acids and other fat components in selected foods (HNIS/PT-103).

Purslane is best used for human consumption as a green vegetable rich in minerals and omega-3 fatty acids [20]. Omega-3 fatty acid is a precursor of a specific group of hormones. It may offer protection against cardiovascular disease, cancers, and a number of chronic diseases and conditions throughout the human life. The antioxidant enzymes such as GPx, GR, SOD, and GST take part in maintaining glutathione homeostasis in tissues. Also, increased levels of GPx, GR, GST, CAT, and SOD were found to correlate with elevated glutathione level and depressed MDA and NO in rats, thus showing the antioxidant activity of purslane.

Purslane leaves contain higher contents of alpha-linolenic acid (18 : 3 w3), alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and glutathione than the leaves of spinach. It grows in growth chambers containing seven times higher contents of alpha-tocopherol than that found in spinach. One hundred grams of fresh purslane leaves (one serving) contains about 300–400 mg of 18 : 3 w3; 12.2 mg of alpha-tocopherol, 26.6 mg of ascorbic acid, 1.9 mg of beta-carotene, and 14.8 mg of glutathione [21].

Purslane has the highest level of alpha-linolenic which is an omega 3 fatty acid essential for human nutrition compared to any leafy green vegetable. A 100 g sample of purslane contains 300–400 mg of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). It also has 0.01 mg per gram of eicopentanoic acid (EPA), which is not present at all in flax oil. This would provide 1 mg of EPA for a 100 g portion of purslane or 10 mg for a kg (2.2 pounds), or 1 g for 100 kg (220 pounds) of sample.

Purslane is the richest source of gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It also contains a small amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. 20 : 5 w3) (0.01 mg/g fresh weight) [21]. Subsequently, purslane contained 18 : 3 w3 20 : 5 w3 and 22  :  6 w3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) as well as 22 : 5 w3 (docosapentaenoic acid, DPA) [22].

Selected food sources of omega-3 fatty acids are illustrated in Table 2. Rapeseed oil, walnut oil, butternuts, and wheat germ oil are excellent sources (6.8–11.1 g/100 g fresh weight) of omega-3 fatty acids. Good sources (0.6–3.2 g/100 g fresh weight) of these fats include green soybean, soybean kernels, beechnut, and oat germ. Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, strawberries, spinach, garden pea, corn, and common dry bean are additional sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These foods contain a smaller (0.1–0.3 g/100 g fresh weight) level of omega-3 fatty acids.

Purslane leaves contained higher amounts of alpha-linolenic (18 : 3 w3) than stem fractions, whereas 20 : 5w3 was higher in stem fractions [22] (Table 3).

Omara-Alwala et al., 1991 [22] Simopoulos and Salem, 1986 [10]
Fatty acidLeafStemWhole plantWhole plant


Results from Omara-Alwala et al., 1991 [22], and Simopoulos and Salem, 1986 [10], expressed as mg of FA per kg or g of net weight.

Leaves of purslane grown both in the controlled growth chamber and in the wild contained higher amount of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (18 : 3 w3) than that of spinach leaves. The highest amount (3.41 mg/g) of alpha-linolenic acid was recorded in growth chamber grown purslane, which was seven times higher than that of spinach leaves (0.48 mg/g) (Table 4).

Fatty acidChamber grown purslaneWild purslaneSpinach
Dry wt%mg/g fresh wtDry wt%mg/g fresh wtDry wt%mg/g fresh wt 0.950.0480.780.007
18.14.99 0.0162.
18.216.99 0.96813.450.7011.700.10
18.359.87 3.4163.783.2253.850.48

Source: Simopoulos et al., 1992 [21].

2.3. Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition

All fractions contained very low lipid content with 0.47% in stems, 0.51% in leaves, and 0.54% in the flowers (Table 5). In general, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be most abundant in all fractions, followed by saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The most predominant fatty acids were 18:3n-3 (50%) in the leaf, 18:3n-6 (46%) in the stem, and 18:2n-6 (30% of total fatty acid) in the flowers. ALA content ranged from 149 to 523 mg (100 g sample) in stems and leaves, respectively. An interesting finding in this study was that 18:3n-6 was found at high levels in all fractions, accounting for 46% in stems, 13% in leaves, and 10% in flowers [23].

Fatty acidComposition (% of total fatty acids)
Leaf Stem Flower

Total SFA16.4224.6424.52
Total MUFA4.833.8913.20
Total PUFA78.7571.4762.28
Lipid content (%)0.510.470.54

Source: Siriamornpun and Suttajit, 2010 [23].

2.4. Antioxidants

The TPC in cultivars of P. oleracea ranged from 127 ± 13 to 478 ± 45 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight of plant. The IC50 ranged from 0.89 ± 0.07 to 3.41 ± 0.41 mg/mL, the AEAC values ranged from 110 ± 14 to 430 ± 32 mg AA/100 g, and the FRAP values ranged from 0.93 ± 0.22 to 5.10 ± 0.56 mg GAE/g [24] (Lim and Quah 2007). DPPH scavenging (IC50) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were from 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, the total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g, AAC varied from 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g, and FRAP ranged from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g [16].

Higher amounts of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and beta-carotene were observed in the leaves of purslane grown both in the growth chamber and in the wild, compared to the composition of spinach leaves (Table 6). Growth chamber grown purslane contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.), whereas beta-carotene was slightly higher in spinach.

NameAlpha-tocopherolAscorbic acidBeta-carotene
mg/100 g (fresh wt.)′mg/100 g (dry wt.)mg/100 g (fresh wt.)′mg/100 g (dry wt.)mg/100 (g fresh wt.)′mg/100 g (dry wt.)

Chamber grown purslane22.223026.65061.938.2
Wild purslane8.217023.04512.243.5

Source: Simopoulos et al., 1992 [21].

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and beta-carotene have been reported to possess antioxidant activity, because of their ability to neutralize free radicals, and have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer [25]. Leaves had the highest content of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and DPPH, followed by flowers and stems (Table 7). Thai wild purslane contained almost 10 times higher beta-carotene and ascorbic acid [3, 4, 26] content than other varieties. The beta-carotene content in the leaf was two times higher than in the stems and slightly higher than in the flowers. This finding is in agreement with the data on Australian purslane, where the beta-carotene content in the leaf was higher than in the stem [3]. Purslane is amongst the group of plants with high oxalate contents. Melatonin is a ubiquitous and versatile molecule that exhibits most of the desirable characteristics of a good antioxidant [27]. The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671–869 mg/100 g fresh weight [28, 29].

Plant partsAntioxidant compound content
Beta-carotene (mg g−1 sample)Ascorbic acid (mg g−1 sample)DPPH (%)


3. Conclusion

As a significant source of omega-3 oils, P. oleracea could yield considerable health benefits to vegetarian and other diets where the consumption of fish oils is excluded. Scientific analysis of its chemical components has shown that this common weed has uncommon nutritional value, making it one of the potentially important foods for the future. Presence of high content of antioxidants (vitamins A and C, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and glutathione) and omega-3 fatty acids and its wound healing and antimicrobial effects as well as its traditional use in the topical treatment of inflammatory conditions suggest that purslane is a highly likely candidate as a useful cosmetic ingredient.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


  1. M. D. Kamal-Uddin, A. S. Juraimi, M. Begum, M. R. Ismail, A. A. Rahim, and R. Othman, “Floristic composition of weed community in turf grass area of west peninsular Malaysia,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  2. M. K. Uddin, A. S. Juraimi, M. R. Ismail, and J. T. Brosnan, “Characterizing weed populations in different turfgrass sites throughout the Klang Valley of western Peninsular Malaysia,” Weed Technology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 173–181, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. L. Liu, P. Howe, Y.-F. Zhou, Z.-Q. Xu, C. Hocart, and R. Zhang, “Fatty acids and β-carotene in Australian purslane (Portulaca oleracea) varieties,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 893, no. 1, pp. 207–213, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. A. P. Simopoulos, H. A. Norman, and J. E. Gillaspy, “Purslane in human nutrition and its potential for world agriculture,” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 77, pp. 47–74, 1995. View at: Google Scholar
  5. I. Oliveira, P. Valentão, R. Lopes, P. B. Andrade, A. Bento, and J. A. Pereira, “Phytochemical characterization and radical scavenging activity of Portulaca oleraceae L. leaves and stems,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 129–134, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. A. P. Simopoulos, “Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in edible wild plants,” Biological Research, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 263–277, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  7. I. Gill and R. Valivety, “Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Part 1: occurrence, biological activities and applications,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 401–409, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. J. Whelan and C. Rust, “Innovative dietary sources of n-3 fatty acids,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 26, pp. 75–103, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. P. J. Nestel, “Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3, n-6),” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1161–1167, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  10. A. P. Simopoulos and N. Salem Jr., “Purslane: a terrestrial source of omega-3 fatty acids,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 315, no. 13, p. 833, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  11. U. R. Palaniswamy, R. J. McAvoy, and B. B. Bible, “Stage of harvest and polyunsaturated essential fatty acid concentrations in purslane (Portulaca oleraceae) leaves,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3490–3493, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. I. Yazici, I. Türkan, A. H. Sekmen, and T. Demiral, “Salinity tolerance of purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.) is achieved by enhanced antioxidative system, lower level of lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 49–57, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. M. K. Uddin, A. S. Juraimi, M. A. Hossain, F. Anwar, and M. A. Alam, “Effect of salt stress of Portulaca oleracea on antioxidant properties and mineral compositions,” Australian Journal Crop Science, vol. 6, pp. 1732–1736, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  14. A. N. Rashed, F. U. Afifi, and A. M. Disi, “Simple evaluation of the wound healing activity of a crude extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (growing in Jordan) in Mus musculus JVI-1,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 88, no. 2-3, pp. 131–136, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. A. Danin and J. A. Reyes-Betancort, “The status of Portulaca oleracae in the Canary Islands,” Lagascalia, vol. 26, pp. 71–81, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  16. M. K. Uddin, A. S. Juraimi, M. E. Ali, and M. R. Ismail, “Evaluation of antioxidant properties and mineral composition of Portulaca oleracea (L.) at different growth stages,” International Journal Molecule Science, vol. 13, pp. 10257–10267, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  17. A. P. Simopoulos, “Evolutionary aspects of diet, essential fatty acids and cardiovascular disease,” European Heart Journal, vol. 3, pp. D8–D21. View at: Google Scholar
  18. S. Siriamornpun and M. Suttajit, “Microchemical components and antioxidant activity of different morphological parts of thai wild purslane (Portulaca oleracea),” Weed Science, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 182–188, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. M. A. Dkhil, A. E. A. Moniem, S. Al-Quraishy, and R. A. Saleh, “Antioxidant effect of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and its mechanism of action,” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1589–1593, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  20. A. E. Abdel-Moneim, M. A. Dkhil, and S. Al-Quraishy, “The redox status in rats treated with flaxseed oil and lead-induced hepatotoxicity,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 457–467, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. A. P. Simopoulos, H. A. Norman, J. E. Gillaspy, and J. A. Duke, “Common purslane: a source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 374–382, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  22. T. R. Omara-Alwala, T. Mebrahtu, D. E. Prior, and M. O. Ezekwe, “Omega-three fatty acids in purslane (Portulaca oleracea) Tissues,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 198–199, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. S. Siriamornpun and M. Suttajit, “Microchemical components and antioxidant activity of different morphological parts of thai wild purslane (Portulaca oleracea),” Weed Science, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 182–188, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. Y. Y. Lim and E. P. L. Quah, “Antioxidant properties of different cultivars of Portulaca oleracea,” Food Chemistry, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 734–740, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. V. A. Rifici and A. K. Khachadurian, “Dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits in vitro oxidation of lipoproteins,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 631–637, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  26. M. A. Alam, A. S. Juraimi, M. Y. Rafii et al., “Evaluation of antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activities and mineral composition of 13 collected purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 296063, 10 pages, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. A. Galano, D. X. Tan, and R. J. Reiter, “Melatonin as a natural ally against oxidative stress: a physicochemical examination,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  28. A. P. Simopoulos, D.-X. Tan, L. C. Manchester, and R. J. Reiter, “Purslane: a plant source of omega-3 fatty acids and melatonin,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 331–332, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  29. A. I. Mohamed and A. S. Hussein, “Chemical composition of purslane (Portulaca oleracea),” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2014 Md. Kamal Uddin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.