On-the-fly calculations of area and performance are a typical part of the computer-aided iterative design process in VLSI, which aims at a satisfactory tradeoff of various conflicting objectives, among which are test-generation time and test-set size. However, determining test sets on-the-fly as one circuit is transformed into another is extremely difficult. Our goal is to add a test dimension to the design optimization process that complements methods concerned with area and performance optimization. We define a set of logic transformations that result in easily computed changes to test sets. Test-set preserving (TSP) transformations preserve a combinational circuit’s test sets, while test-set altering (TSA) transformations introduce a minimum number of tests needed to maintain completeness. We illustrate our approach with a family of adders that share area-efficient tree structures and differ in the amount of carry-lookahead used to accelerate carry computation. Members include the ripple-carry adder, which has no lookahead, and the standard carry-lookahead adder, which exploits lookahead across all inputs. It is straightforward to derive area and performance measures for this class of adders. Given an n-bit adder with lookahead degree k, we determine a sequence of circuit transformations that produce the adder of degree k2 and test sets of minimum size. Optimal test sets of size k(logkn + 1) + 2 result for arbitrary n and k, which improve significantly upon previously reported tests.