Research Letters in Materials Science

Volume 2008, Article ID 907895, 3 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/907895

## Internal Vibrations of Edge Dislocation Dipoles

^{1}Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic^{2}Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Science of Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, 182 21 Prague, Czech Republic

Received 12 June 2008; Accepted 8 July 2008

Academic Editor: Korukonda L. Murty

Copyright © 2008 J. J. Kratochvíl and F. Kroupa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

The resonance frequency of vibrations of dislocation dipoles in fatigued f.c.c. metals is found rather high, in the range of 100 GHz. Because of high attenuation of ultrasound in the GHz range, the contributions of these self-vibrations to degradation of the dipole structures could be expected only in thin layers.

#### 1. Introduction

A high density of edge dislocation dipolar loops is formed during plastic deformation of crystalline materials, especially under cycling loading [1–3]. During deformation, the loops are clustered becoming main building blocks of the dipolar deformation microstructure (tangles, veins, dipolar walls). The size of the prismatic dipolar loops is typically of the order of 10 nm (in Ni crystals deformed cyclically at room temperatures, the averaged loop height is 4 nm, the averaged length is 60 nm [2, 3]). The leading factor, which influences the rate of clustering and hence the degradation process, is the loop mobility expressed through the drift coefficient. In principle, this coefficient can be decreased by internal vibration of the loops, in analogy to the effect of temperature increase. There is experimental evidence that higher temperature accelerates the clustering process [4].

In this note, small internal vibrations in the slip planes of two long elastically interacting dislocation arms forming a dipole will be studied as forced vibrations due to an oscillating external shear stress. The effect of damping will also be briefly discussed. This approach is similar to the study of vibrations of two partials forming a split dislocation in f.c.c. metals [5] and of internal vibrations of the core of screw dislocations in b.c.c. metals modeled by four partials in [6].

#### 2. Forced Vibrations

An edge dislocation dipole with the dislocation lines in the *z*-direction
(Figure 1) is formed by dislocation 1 in the slip plane with the Burgers vector of length in the direction and by dislocation 2 in the slip
plane with Burgers vector . Length *l* of the dipole in the *z* direction
will be assumed much larger than the dipole height *h.* In the equilibrium
configuration of the dipole, and ,
the force components in the slip planes are zero [6]. The force components in
the direction perpendicular to the slip planes, which may induce the climbing
of dislocations, will not be considered.

For changed positions *x* and ,
the interaction force from dislocation 2 on 1 is equal to and that from 1 on 2
. The stress component for an edge dislocation lying in the -axis is well known [6],
, where *G* is the shear modulus and the Poisson’s ratio, so that for the
displaced dislocations (forces will be given on unit lengths of dislocations),
where

Only the vibrations symmetrical to the central *y-z* plane will be
considered (which may be called optical mode), so that . The deviation of dislocation 1 from the equilibrium
position will be denoted as ,
so that the width of the dipole is (Figure 1).
For small deviations, ,
the equation for force vibrations is reduced to the equation of a standard
linear undamped oscillator. For oscillating external shear stress
, the equation of motion reads
as follows:
The amplitude *A* of harmonic solution is The assumption of small deviations
is violated when the frequency of external oscillations * ω* approaches the frequency of self-vibrations
: In the last equation the effective mass of a dislocation per unit length can be estimated [7] as
,where

*ρ*is the mass density. For example, for copper, GPa, , nm, kg/m

^{3}[3], it is . Therefore, for the expected values of the typical dipolar loop height, nm, the circular self-frequencies are very high, , that is,

*is in the range of 100 GHz, that is, the frequencies*

*ω*_{S}*f*in the range of 10 GHz.

#### 3. Forced Vibrations with Damping

The damping decreases
the amplitude accompanied by a phase shift. The main part of the damping force
can be taken proportional to the dislocation velocity, [5], where *R* is the damping constant. The equation of motion modifies
to with the solution where *B* is the amplitude of damped vibrations and * α* is the phase shift,
The value of the damping constant
for metals like Al and Pb was estimated in [5] to be of the order (the estimate corresponds to the temperature independent
electronic damping, for higher temperature

*R*increases due to the phonon damping). Amplitude

*B*reaches maximum for , however, as , we have and . For the validity of the linearized model, the vibrations have to be small, that is, , hence .

#### 4. Discussion

According to the presented estimate, the mobility of a typical dipolar loop approximated as the edge dipole of the height ~10 nm can be facilitated by ultrasound waves in the 100 GHz range of frequencies. The commercial apparatus works with the frequencies up to 10 GHz, using special equipment, the ultrasound frequency 600 GHz was reached in thin foils [7]. The main problem is a strong attenuation increase at higher frequencies, especially in metals. Therefore, the effect of ultrasound in the GHz range on dislocation dipole vibrations can be reached in principle, however, only in thin specimens; for example, in fatigued specimens exposed to GHz ultrasound waves, the degradation process could be accelerated. To our knowledge, no experiments of that kind have been done, as a verification of this effect seems to be rather difficult. The contribution of dislocations dipoles to distortion of ultrasound waves was analyzed and measured in [8] at frequency 5 MHz, that is, far below the resonance frequency estimated in the present note.

#### Acknowledgment

This research has been supported by Grant VZ-MMT 840770021.

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