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Research Letters in Materials Science
Volume 2009, Article ID 854701, 3 pages
Research Letter

The Determination of Bound Water in Waste Phosphatic Clay

1Department of Conctruction Materials, Nanodynamics Inc., Columbus, OH 43212, USA
2Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
3Department of Civil Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2K6

Received 16 March 2009; Accepted 28 May 2009

Academic Editor: Pearl Lee-Sullivan

Copyright © 2009 Mahir Dham et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Phosphatic clay is a by-product of phosphate strip mining, particularly in Florida, USA. This waste material occupies about 100 000 acres of land which could be utilized for other causes. Thus, its use as an alternating cementing material for the addition into the mixing matrix of cement paste and concrete to yield higher strength would be profitable for both materials involved. But the biggest drawback faced is that the phosphatic clay possesses high water holding capacity. The water is thus not available for mixing purposes when added to cement paste and concrete and is thus known as bound water. It is therefore essential to determine the amount of bound water to phosphatic clay which shall not be available for the hydration reaction of cement in cement paste and concrete.