Advances in Materials Science and Engineering

Volume 2010, Article ID 710269, 7 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/710269

Research Article

## Retention Characteristics of CBTi144 Thin Films Explained by Means of X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy

^{1}Laboratório Interdisciplinar em Cerâmica, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Francisco Degni, s/n, Bairro Quitandinha, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP, Brazil^{2}Universidade Federal de Itajubá-Unifei, Campus Itabira, Rua São Paulo, 377, 35900-373 Bairro Amazonas-Itabira MG, Brazil

Received 5 February 2010; Accepted 6 April 2010

Academic Editor: Zoe Barber

Copyright © 2010 G. Biasotto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Linked References

- W. Di, L. Aidong, Z. Tao, L. Zhiguo, and N. Ming, “Ferroelectric properties of ${\text{Bi}}_{\text{3}\text{.25}}{\text{La}}_{0.75}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$ thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition,”
*Journal of Applied Physics*, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 5941–5945, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Y. Adachi, D. Su, P. Muralt, and N. Setter, “Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lanthanoid-substituted ${\text{Bi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$ thin films grown on (111)Pt and (100) ${\text{IrO}}_{2}$ electrodes,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 86, no. 17, Article ID 172904, pp. 1–3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - S.-K. Kim, M. Miyayama, and H. Yanagida, “Electrical anisotropy of ${\text{BaBi}}_{\text{4}}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ single crystal,”
*Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan*, vol. 102, pp. 722–726, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - S.-K. Kim, M. Miyayama, and H. Yanagida, “Complex impedance and modulus analysis on electrical anisotropy of layer-structured ${\text{BaBi}}_{\text{4}}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ single crystal in paraelectric phase,”
*Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan*, vol. 103, no. 1195, pp. 315–318, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - I. Yi and M. Miyayama,
*Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan*, vol. 20, p. 660, 1996. - Y.-I. Park, M. Miyayama, and T. Kudo, “Fabrication of ${\text{PbBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ and ${\text{Pb}}_{2}{\text{Bi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{5}{\text{O}}_{18}$ thin films by sol-gel method,”
*Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan*, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 413–418, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - H. Watanabe, T. Mihara, H. Yoshimori, and Carlos A. Paz de Araujo, “Preparation of ferroelectric thin films of bismuth layer structured compounds,”
*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1*, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 5240–5244, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - E. C. Subbarao, “Crystal chemistry of mixed bismuth oxides with layer-type structure,”
*Journal of the American Ceramic Society*, vol. 45, pp. 166–169, 1962. View at Google Scholar - L. Korzanova,
*Ferroelectrics*, vol. 134, p. 175, 1992. - W. X. Xianyu, W. I. Lee, T. Ko, and J. K. Lee, “Ferroelectric behavior of orientation-controlled ${\text{PbBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ thin films,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 82, no. 20, pp. 3496–3498, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - A. Garg, Z. H. Barber, M. Dawber, J. F. Scott, A. Snedden, and P. Lightfoot, “Orientation dependence of ferroelectric properties of pulsed-laser-ablated ${\text{Bi}}_{4-x}{\text{Nd}}_{x}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$ films,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 2414–2416, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. Kato, K. Suzuki, D. Fu, K. Nishizawa, and T. Miki, “Platinum-assisted phase transition in bismuth-based layer-structured ferroelectric ${\text{CaBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ thin films,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 81, no. 17, pp. 3227–3229, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. Kato, K. Suzuki, K. Nishizawa, and T. Miki, “Ferroelectric properties of alkoxy-derived ${\text{CaBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ thin films on Pt-passivated Si,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 1119–1121, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. Kato, K. Suzuki, K. Nishizawa, and T. Miki, “Comparison of microstructure and ferroelectric properties of alkoxy-derived ${\text{MBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ (M: Ca or Sr) thin films,”
*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1*, vol. 40, no. 9 B, pp. 5580–5584, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - T. Takeuchi, T. Tani, and Y. Saito, “Piezoelectric properties of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric ceramics with a preferred orientation processed by the reactive templated grain growth method,”
*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1*, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 5553–5556, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - T. Takeuchi, T. Tani, and Y. Saito, “Unidirectionally textured ${\text{CaBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ ceramics by the reactive templated grain growth with an extrusion,”
*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1*, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 5577–5580, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - V. Samuel, A. B. Gaikwad, A. D. Jadhav, S. A. Mirji, and V. Ravi, “A novel technique to prepare ${\text{CaBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ at low temperature,”
*Materials Letters*, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 765–766, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - H. Muthurajan, H. H. Kumar, N. Natarajan, and V. Ravi, “A novel technique to prepare ${\text{LiTaO}}_{3}$ at low temperature,”
*Ceramics International*, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 669–670, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - H. Muthurajan, H. H. Kumar, V. Samuel, U. N. Gupta, and V. Ravi, “Novel hydroxide precursors to prepare ${\text{NaNbO}}_{3}$ and ${\text{KNbO}}_{3}$,”
*Ceramics International*, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 671–673, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - H. Muthurajan, N. K. Rao, U. N. Gupta et al., “Novel hydroxide precursors for low temperature synthesis of selected ternary oxides,”
*Materials Research Bulletin*, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1842–1849, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - U. N. Gupta, H. Muthurajan, H. H. Kumar, N. K. Rao, S. P. Gokhale, and V. Ravi, “Synthesis of LSMO at low temperature by novel hydroxide precursor technique,”
*Materials Letters*, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 527–529, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - H. Muthurajan, H. H. Kumar, N. K. Rao, S. Pradhan, R. K. Jha, and V. Ravi, “Low temperature synthesis of ${\text{SrNb}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{6}$ and ${\text{SrTa}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{6}$ using hydroxide precursor,”
*Materials Letters*, vol. 62, no. 6-7, pp. 892–894, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - U. N. Gupta, V. Samuel, H. Muthurajan, H. H. Kumar, S. D. Patil, and V. Ravi, “A co-precipitation method for preparation of ${\text{Bi}}_{3}{\text{TiNbO}}_{9}$ powders,”
*Ceramics International*, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 675–677, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - A. Z. Simões, A. H. Gonzalez, C. S. Riccardi et al., “Effect of magnesium on the properties of ${\text{LiNbO}}_{3}$ thin films prepared from polymeric precursors,”
*Integrated Ferroelectrics*, vol. 43, pp. 123–135, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - A. Z. Simões, A. H. Gonzalez, M. A. Zaghete et al., “Influence of oxygen flow on crystallization and morphology of ${\text{LiNbO}}_{3}$ thin films,”
*Ferroelectrics*, vol. 271, pp. 33–38, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - B. H. Park, S. J. Hyun, S. D. Bu et al., “Differences in nature of defects between ${\text{SrBi}}_{2}{\text{Ta}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{9}$ and ${\text{Bi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 74, no. 13, pp. 1907–1909, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - E. R. Leite, C. M. G. Sousa, E. Longo, and J. A. Varela, “Influence of polymerization on the synthesis of ${\text{SrTiO}}_{3}$: part I. Characteristics of the polymeric precursors and their thermal decomposition,”
*Ceramics International*, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 143–152, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - C. A-Paz de Araujo, J. D. Cuchlaro, L. D. McMillan, M. C. Scott, and J. F. Scott, “Fatigue-free ferroelectric capacitors with platinum electrodes,”
*Nature*, vol. 374, no. 6523, pp. 627–629, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - P. C. Joshi, S. B. Krupanidhi, and A. Mansingh, “Rapid thermally processed ferroelectric ${\text{Bi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$ thin films,”
*Journal of Applied Physics*, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 5517–5519, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - C. Jovalekic, M. Pavlovic, P. Osmokrovic, and L. Atanasoska, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of ${\text{Bi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$ ferroelectric ceramics,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 1051–1053, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - B. H. Park, S. J. Hyun, S. D. Bu et al., “Differences in nature of defects between ${\text{SrBi}}_{2}{\text{Ta}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{\text{9}}$ and ${\text{Bi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 74, no. 13, pp. 1907–1909, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - B. S. Kang, B. H. Park, S. D. Bu, S. H. Kang, and T. W. Noh, “Different fatigue behaviors of ${\text{SrBi}}_{2}{\text{Ta}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{\text{9}}$ and ${\text{Bi}}_{3}{\text{TiTaO}}_{9}$ films: role of perovskite layers,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 75, no. 17, pp. 2644–2646, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - A. Z. Simões, M. A. Ramirez, A. H. M. Gonzalez et al., “Control of retention and fatigue-free characteristics in ${\text{CaBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ thin films prepared by chemical method,”
*Journal of Solid State Chemistry*, vol. 179, no. 7, pp. 2206–2211, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. T. Last, “Infrared-absorption studies on barium titanate and related materials,”
*Physical Review*, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 1740–1750, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. Kato, K. Suzuki, K. Nishizawa, and T. Miki, “Comparison of microstructure and ferroelectric properties of alkoxy-derived ${\text{MBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ (M: Ca or Sr) thin films,”
*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1*, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 5580–5584, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - A. Z. Simões, C. S. Riccardi, M. A. Ramırez, L. S. Cavalcante, E. Longo, and J. A. Varela, “Synthesis and characterization of ${\text{CaBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ thin films annealed by microwave and conventional furnaces,”
*Solid State Sciences*, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 756–760, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. Kato, K. Suzuki, K. Nishizawa, and T. Miki, “Ferroelectric properties of alkoxy-derived ${\text{CaBi}}_{4}{\text{Ti}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{15}$ thin films on Pt-passivated Si,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 1119–1121, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - B. S. Kang, J. G. Yoon, T. K. Song, S. Seo, Y. W. So, and T. W. Noh, “Retention characteristics of ${\text{Bi}}_{3.25}{\text{La}}_{0.75}{\text{Ti}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{12}$ thin films,”
*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1*, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 5281–5283, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. W. Hong, W. Jo, D. C. Kim et al., “Nanoscale investigation of domain retention in preferentially oriented ${\text{PbZr}}_{0.53}{\text{Ti}}_{0.47}{\text{O}}_{3}$ thin films on Pt and on LaNiO
_{3},”*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 75, no. 20, pp. 3183–3185, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus