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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 1750105, 10 pages
Research Article

Electropolished Titanium Implants with a Mirror-Like Surface Support Osseointegration and Bone Remodelling

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland, SÄS, Borås, Sweden
2Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
3BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Göteborg, Sweden
4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
5Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden

Received 24 August 2016; Revised 29 September 2016; Accepted 16 November 2016

Academic Editor: Michele Iafisco

Copyright © 2016 Cecilia Larsson Wexell et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This work characterises the ultrastructural composition of the interfacial tissue adjacent to electropolished, commercially pure titanium implants with and without subsequent anodisation, and it investigates whether a smooth electropolished surface can support bone formation in a manner similar to surfaces with a considerably thicker surface oxide layer. Screw-shaped implants were electropolished to remove all topographical remnants of the machining process, resulting in a thin spontaneously formed surface oxide layer and a smooth surface. Half of the implants were subsequently anodically oxidised to develop a thickened surface oxide layer and increased surface roughness. Despite substantial differences in the surface physicochemical properties, the microarchitecture and the composition of the newly formed bone were similar for both implant surfaces after 12 weeks of healing in rabbit tibia. A close spatial relationship was observed between osteocyte canaliculi and both implant surfaces. On the ultrastructural level, the merely electropolished surface showed the various stages of bone formation, for example, matrix deposition and mineralisation, entrapment of osteoblasts within the mineralised matrix, and their morphological transformation into osteocytes. The results demonstrate that titanium implants with a mirror-like surface and a thin, spontaneously formed oxide layer are able to support bone formation and remodelling.