Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4126163, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4126163
Review Article

Effects of Solution-Based Fabrication Conditions on Morphology of Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Film Solar Cells

California State University, Chico, 400 W. 1st Street, Chico, CA 95929-0210, USA

Received 9 April 2016; Revised 5 June 2016; Accepted 19 June 2016

Academic Editor: Rafiq Ahmad

Copyright © 2016 Jeremy L. Barnett et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon et al., “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature, vol. 499, no. 7458, pp. 316–319, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H.-B. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jeong et al., “Mixed solvents for the optimization of morphology in solution-processed, inverted-type perovskite/fullerene hybrid solar cells,” Nanoscale, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 6679–6683, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. Wu, A. Islam, X. Yang et al., “Retarding the crystallization of PbI2 for highly reproducible planar-structured perovskite solar cells via sequential deposition,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2934–2938, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic—organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nature Materials, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 897–903, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Gao, M. Grätzel, and M. K. Nazeeruddin, “Organohalide lead perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 2448–2463, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. S. Jung and N.-G. Park, “Perovskite solar cells: from materials to devices,” Small, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 10–25, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Sharenko and M. F. Toney, “Relationships between lead halide perovskite thin-film fabrication, morphology, and performance in solar cells,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 463–470, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. Y. Zhao and K. Zhu, “Solution chemistry engineering toward high-efficiency perovskite solar cells,” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 5, no. 23, pp. 4175–4186, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. Y. Tidhar, E. Edri, H. Weissman et al., “Crystallization of methyl ammonium lead halide perovskites: implications for photovoltaic applications,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 136, no. 38, pp. 13249–13256, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Marchioro, J. Teuscher, D. Friedrich et al., “Unravelling the mechanism of photoinduced charge transfer processes in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Nature Photonics, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 250–255, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger et al., “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Advanced Materials, vol. 27, no. 35, pp. 5102–5112, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. E. Eperon, S. N. Habisreutinger, T. Leijtens et al., “The importance of moisture in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin film fabrication,” ACS Nano, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 9380–9393, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Ma, S. Wang, L. Zheng et al., “Recent research developments of perovskite solar cells,” Chinese Journal of Chemistry, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 957–963, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. S. Manser, M. I. Saidaminov, J. A. Christians, O. M. Bakr, and P. V. Kamat, “Making and breaking of lead halide perovskites,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 330–338, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Niu, W. Li, F. Meng, L. Wang, H. Dong, and Y. Qiu, “Study on the stability of CH3NH3PbI3 films and the effect of post-modification by aluminum oxide in all-solid-state hybrid solar cells,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 705–710, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Pathak, A. Sepe, A. Sadhanala et al., “Atmospheric influence upon crystallization and electronic disorder and its impact on the photophysical properties of organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2311–2320, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Wozny, M. Yang, A. M. Nardes et al., “Controlled humidity study on the formation of higher efficiency formamidinium lead triiodide-based solar cells,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 4814–4820, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Khatiwada, S. Venkatesan, N. Adhikari et al., “Efficient perovskite solar cells by temperature control in single and mixed halide precursor solutions and films,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 119, no. 46, pp. 25747–25753, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Wang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhou et al., “Reproducible one-step fabrication of compact MAPbI3-xClx thin films derived from mixed-lead-halide precursors,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 7145–7150, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 3250–3258, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Bi, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan et al., “Understanding the formation and evolution of interdiffusion grown organolead halide perovskite thin films by thermal annealing,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 2, no. 43, pp. 18508–18514, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Ma, M. Cagnoni, D. Tadaki, A. Hirano-Iwata, and M. Niwano, “Annealing-induced chemical and structural changes in tri-iodide and mixed-halide organometal perovskite layers,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 3, no. 27, pp. 14195–14201, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Liu, M. K. Gangishetty, and T. L. Kelly, “Effect of CH3NH3PbI3 thickness on device efficiency in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 2, no. 46, pp. 19873–19881, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Ahn, S. M. Kang, J.-W. Lee, M. Choi, and N.-G. Park, “Thermodynamic regulation of CH3NH3PbI3 crystal growth and its effect on photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 3, pp. 19901–19906, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. M. Saliba, K. W. Tan, H. Sai et al., “Influence of thermal processing protocol upon the crystallization and photovoltaic performance of organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 118, no. 30, pp. 17171–17177, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Jeong, S. M. Cho, S. H. Cho et al., “Humidity controlled crystallization of thin CH3NH3PbI3 films for high performance perovskite solar cell,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL)—Rapid Research Letters, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 381–387, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. P. Qin, S. Tanaka, S. Ito et al., “Inorganic hole conductor-based lead halide perovskite solar cells with 12.4% conversion efficiency,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, article 3834, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. O. Eze, B. Lei, and T. Mori, “Air-assisted flow and two-step spin-coating for highly efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 55, Article ID 02BF08, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Shi, Y. Luo, H. Wei et al., “Modified two-step deposition method for high-efficiency TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 9711–9718, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Zheng, Y. Ma, S. Chu et al., “Improved light absorption and charge transport for perovskite solar cells with rough interfaces by sequential deposition,” Nanoscale, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 8171–8176, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Sheng, A. Ho-Baillie, S. Huang et al., “Methylammonium lead bromide perovskite-based solar cells by vapor-assisted deposition,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 3545–3549, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Cui, P. Fu, D. Wei et al., “Reduced surface defects of organometallic perovskite by thermal annealing for highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 92, pp. 75622–75629, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Bi, A. M. El-Zohry, A. Hagfeldt, and G. Boschloo, “Improved morphology control using a modified two-step method for efficient perovskite solar cells,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 21, pp. 18751–18757, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Pellet, P. Gao, G. Gregori et al., “Mixed-organic-cation perovskite photovoltaics for enhanced solar-light harvesting,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 3151–3157, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. L. Unger, A. R. Bowring, C. J. Tassone et al., “Chloride in lead chloride-derived organo-metal halides for perovskite-absorber solar cells,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 7158–7165, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li et al., “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science, vol. 345, no. 6196, pp. 542–546, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. W. Chen, H. W. Kang, S. Y. Hsiao, P. F. Yang, K. M. Chiang, and H. W. Lin, “Efficient and uniform planar-type perovskite solar cells by simple sequential vacuum deposition,” Advanced Materials, vol. 26, no. 38, pp. 6647–6652, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. K. Liang, D. B. Mitzi, and M. T. Prikas, “Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films prepared using a versatile two-step dipping technique,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 403–411, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Jiang, H. Jun Tao, S. Chen et al., “Efficiency enhancement of perovskite solar cells by fabricating as-prepared film before sequential spin-coating procedure,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 371, pp. 289–295, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. A. Yella, L.-P. Heiniger, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Nanocrystalline rutile electron extraction layer enables low-temperature solution processed perovskite photovoltaics with 13.7% efficiency,” Nano Letters, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 2591–2596, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H.-S. Kim and N.-G. Park, “Parameters affecting I-V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 2927–2934, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar