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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9265195, 15 pages
Review Article

Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Bi-X Lead-Free Solders

1School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China
2Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
3State Key Laboratory of Advanced Brazing Filler Metals & Technology, Zhengzhou Research Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Zhengzhou 450001, China

Received 29 June 2016; Revised 18 October 2016; Accepted 23 October 2016

Academic Editor: Peter Majewski

Copyright © 2016 Fan Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The Sn-Bi base lead-free solders are proposed as one of the most popular alloys due to the low melting temperature (eutectic point: 139°C) and low cost. However, they are not widely used because of the lower wettability, fatigue resistance, and elongation compared to traditional Sn-Pb solders. So the alloying is considered as an effective way to improve the properties of Sn-Bi solders with the addition of elements (Al, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, In, Sb, and rare earth) and nanoparticles. In this paper, the development of Sn-Bi lead-free solders bearing elements and nanoparticles was reviewed. The variation of wettability, melting characteristic, electromigration, mechanical properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds reaction, and creep behaviors was analyzed systematically, which can provide a reference for investigation of Sn-Bi base solders.