Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 9265195, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9265195
Review Article

Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Bi-X Lead-Free Solders

1School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China
2Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
3State Key Laboratory of Advanced Brazing Filler Metals & Technology, Zhengzhou Research Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Zhengzhou 450001, China

Received 29 June 2016; Revised 18 October 2016; Accepted 23 October 2016

Academic Editor: Peter Majewski

Copyright © 2016 Fan Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Li, Z. Yuan, Z. Qiao, J. Fan, Y. Xu, and J. Ke, “Measurement and calculation of surface tension of molten Sn-Bi alloy,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 297, no. 1, pp. 261–265, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Zhang and K. N. Tu, “Structure and properties of lead-free solders bearing micro and nano particles,” Materials Science & Engineering R: Reports, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 1–32, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Q. Yu, J. Zhao, and L. Wang, “Improvement on the microstructure stability, mechanical and wetting properties of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder with the addition of rare earth elements,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 376, no. 1-2, pp. 170–175, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Nurmi, J. Sundelin, E. Ristolainen, and T. Lepistö, “The effect of solder paste composition on the reliability of SnAgCu joints,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 485–494, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Zhang, S. Xue, Y. Chen et al., “Effects of cerium on Sn-Ag-Cu alloys based on finite element simulation and experiments,” Journal of Rare Earths, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 138–144, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. F. Choudhury and L. Ladani, “Local shear stress-strain response of Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joint with high fraction of intermetallic compounds: experimental analysis,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 680, pp. 665–676, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. Y. Yao, J. Zhou, F. Xue, and X. Chen, “Interfacial structure and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds between Sn-3.5Ag solder and Al substrate during solder process,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 682, pp. 627–633, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Xie et al., “Effects of intermetallic-forming element additions on microstructure and corrosion behavior of Sn–Zn solder alloys,” Corrosion Science, vol. 112, pp. 150–159, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. W. Xing, X. Yu, H. Li et al., “Microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-9Zn-xAl2O3 nanoparticles (x=0–1) lead-free solder alloy: first-principles calculation and experimental research,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 678, pp. 252–259, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. B. L. Silva, G. Reinhart, H. Nguyen-Thi, N. Mangelinck-Noël, A. Garcia, and J. E. Spinelli, “Microstructural development and mechanical properties of a near-eutectic directionally solidified Sn–Bi solder alloy,” Materials Characterization, vol. 107, pp. 43–53, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. O. Mokhtari and H. Nishikawa, “The shear strength of transient liquid phase bonded Sn–Bi solder joint with added Cu particles,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1000–1005, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. B. L. Silva, N. Cheung, A. Garcia, and J. E. Spinelli, “Evaluation of solder/substrate thermal conductance and wetting angle of Sn–0.7 wt%Cu–(0–0.1 wt%Ni) solder alloys,” Materials Letters, vol. 142, pp. 163–167, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. T. Maeshima, H. Ikehata, K. Terui, and Y. Sakamoto, “Effect of Ni to the Cu substrate on the interfacial reaction with Sn-Cu solder,” Materials & Design, vol. 103, pp. 106–113, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Yang, H. Ji, S. Wang et al., “Effects of Ag content on the interfacial reactions between liquid Sn–Ag–Cu solders and Cu substrates during soldering,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 679, pp. 18–25, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Giuranno, S. Delsante, G. Borzone, and R. Novakovic, “Effects of Sb addition on the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu/(Cu, Ni) solder systems,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 689, pp. 918–930, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Mostofizadeh, J. Pippola, T. Marttila, and L. Frisk, “Effect of isothermal aging and salt spray tests on reliability and mechanical strength of eutectic Sn-Bi lead-free solder joints,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE '12), April 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Goh, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, and M. F. M. Sabri, “Effects of hydroquinone and gelatin on the electrodeposition of Sn-Bi low temperature Pb-free solder,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 90, pp. 265–273, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. F. Lee, Y. Goh, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “Effects of stacking sequence of electrodeposited Sn and Bi layers on reflowed Sn-Bi solder alloys,” in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE/CPMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference (IEMT '12), 6, p. 1, Perak, Malaysia, November 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. H. Wang, L. Wen, J. W. Zhou, and M. Chung, “Mechanical properties and joint reliability improvement of Sn-Bi alloy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 13th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC '11), pp. 492–496, Singapore, December 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M.-H. Roh, J. P. Jung, and W. Kim, “Microstructure, shear strength, and nanoindentation property of electroplated Sn-Bi micro-bumps,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 265–271, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. T. Vianco, A. C. Kilgo, and R. Grant, “Intermetallic compound layer growth by solid state reactions between 58Bi-42Sn solder and copper,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1493–1505, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Kitajima and T. Shono, “Reliability study of new SnZnAl lead-free solders used in CSP packages,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 45, no. 7-8, pp. 1208–1214, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. F. Li, S. H. Mannan, M. P. Clode et al., “Comparison of interfacial reactions of Ni and Ni-P in extended contact with liquid Sn-Bi-based solders,” Acta Materialia, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 737–752, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X. Chen, F. Xue, J. Zhou, and Y. Yao, “Effect of in on microstructure, thermodynamic characteristic and mechanical properties of Sn-Bi based lead-free solder,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 633, pp. 377–383, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. Dong, Y. Shi, Z. Xia, Y. Lei, and F. Guo, “Effects of trace amounts of rare earth additions on microstructure and properties of Sn-Bi-based solder alloy,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 982–991, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Sun and L. Zhang, “Properties and microstructures of Sn-Ag-Cu-X lead-free solder joints in electronic packaging,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2015, Article ID 639028, 16 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. E. M. Noor, N. M. Sharif, C. K. Yew, T. Ariga, A. B. Ismail, and Z. Hussain, “Wettability and strength of In-Bi-Sn lead-free solder alloy on copper substrate,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 507, no. 1, pp. 290–296, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. W. Morris Jr., J. L. F. Goldstein, and Z. Mei, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-In and Sn-Bi solders,” JOM, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 25–27, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. F. Li, S. H. Mannan, M. P. Clode et al., “Interactions between liquid Sn-Bi based solders and contact metals for high temperature applications,” in Proceedings of the 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC '05), pp. 441–448, Lake Buena Vista, Fla, USA, June 2005. View at Scopus
  30. H.-W. Miao, J.-G. Duh, and B.-S. Chiou, “Thermal cycling test in Sn-Bi and Sn-Bi-Cu solder joints,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 609–618, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Zang, Z. Yuan, H. Zhao, and X. Zhang, “Wettability of molten Sn-Bi-Cu solder on Cu substrate,” Materials Letters, vol. 63, no. 23, pp. 2067–2069, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Zhang, S.-D. Liu, G.-T. Qian, J. Zhou, and F. Xue, “Effect of Sb content on properties of Sn-Bi solders,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition), vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 184–191, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. X. Chen, F. Xue, J. Zhou, S. Liu, and G. Qian, “Microstructure, thermal and wetting properties of Sn-Bi-Zn lead-free solder,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 2708–2715, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Zhang, L. Sun, and Y.-H. Guo, “Microstructures and properties of Sn58Bi, Sn35Bi0.3Ag, Sn35Bi1.0Ag solder and solder joints,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 7629–7634, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. Liu, M. Huang, C. M. L. Wu, and L. Wang, “Effect of Y2O3 particles on microstructure formation and shear properties of Sn-58Bi solder,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1046–1054, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. X. Liu, M. Huang, and N. Zhao, “Effect of Cu6Sn5 particles on microstructure formation and mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi solder,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging (ICEPT-HDP '12), pp. 423–425, Guilin, China, August 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Yang, C. Du, J. Dai, N. Zhang, and Y. Jing, “Effect of nanosized graphite on properties of Sn-Bi solder,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4180–4185, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. Brunetti, D. Gozzi, M. Iervolino et al., “Bismuth activity in lead-free solder Bi-In-Sn alloys,” Calphad: Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams & Thermochemistry, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 431–442, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. H. Mannan, M. P. Clode, and M. Dagher, “Study of intermetallic crystal growth between Nb and molten 52In-48Sn solder,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 125–131, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H.-W. Miao and J.-G. Duh, “Microstructure evolution in Sn-Bi and Sn-Bi-Cu solder joints under thermal aging,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 255–271, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C.-H. Yeh, L.-S. Chang, and B. B. Straumal, “Wetting transition of grain boundaries in the Sn-rich part of the Sn-Bi phase diagram,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1557–1562, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Z. Guo, W. Yuan, M. Hindler, and A. Mikula, “Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au-Bi-Sn alloys,” Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, vol. 48, pp. 201–206, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. I. Shafiq, Y. C. Chan, S. Xu, and Q. Q. Li, “Electro-migration study of nano Al doped lead- free Sn-58Bi on Cu and Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array (BGA) packages,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (EMPC '11), pp. 1–7, Brighton, UK, 2011.
  44. J. Shen, Y. Pu, H. Yin, D. Luo, and J. Chen, “Effects of minor Cu and Zn additions on the thermal, microstructure and tensile properties of Sn-Bi-based solder alloys,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 614, pp. 63–70, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D.-L. Ma and P. Wu, “Effects of Zn addition on mechanical properties of eutectic Sn-58Bi solder during liquid-state aging,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition), vol. 25, no. 4, article 63719, pp. 1225–1233, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. Altlntas, Y. Kayglslz, E. Öztürk, S. Aksöz, K. Keşlioğlu, and N. Maraşlı, “The measurements of electrical and thermal conductivity variations with temperature and phonon component of the thermal conductivity in Sn–Cd–Sb, Sn–In–Cu, Sn–Ag–Bi and Sn–Bi–Zn alloys,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol. 100, pp. 1–9, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S.-K. Lin, T. L. Nguyen, S.-C. Wu, and Y.-H. Wang, “Effective suppression of interfacial intermetallic compound growth between Sn-58 wt.% Bi solders and Cu substrates by minor Ga addition,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 586, no. 4, pp. 319–327, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. M. Shalaby, “Effect of silver and indium addition on mechanical properties and indentation creep behavior of rapidly solidified Bi-Sn based lead-free solder alloys,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 560, pp. 86–95, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y.-C. Huang and S.-W. Chen, “Effects of Co alloying and size on solidification and interfacial reactions in Sn-57 wt.%Bi-(Co)/Cu couples,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. S. Shin, S. Lee, S. Yoo, and C. W. Lee, “Mechanical and microstructural properties of SiC-mixed Sn-Bi composite solder bumps by electroplating,” in Proceedings of the European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (EMPC '09), June 2009. View at Scopus
  51. Y. Peng and K. Deng, “Fabrication of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets reinforced Sn-Bi nanocomposites by electro-chemical deposition,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 73, pp. 55–62, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y.-Y. Shiue and T.-H. Chuang, “Effect of La addition on the interfacial intermetallics and bonding strengths of Sn-58Bi solder joints with Au/Ni/Cu pads,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 491, no. 1-2, pp. 610–617, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Wu, J. Shen, and C. Peng, “Effects of trace amounts of rare earth additions on the microstructures and interfacial reactions of Sn57Bi1Ag/Cu solder joints,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 14–21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Zhang, C.-W. He, Y.-H. Guo, J.-G. Han, Y.-W. Zhang, and X.-Y. Wang, “Development of SnAg-based lead free solders in electronics packaging,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 559–578, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. S. Zhang, Y. C. Chan, Y. P. Wu, H. J. Xi, and F. S. Wu, “Electromigration of Pb-free solder under a low level of current density,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 458, no. 1-2, pp. 492–499, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C.-M. Chen, Y.-M. Hung, and C.-H. Lin, “Electromigration of Sn-8 wt.% Zn-3 wt.% Bi and Sn-9 wt.% Zn-1 wt.% Cu solders,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 475, no. 1-2, pp. 238–244, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. He, H. Zhao, F. Guo, and G. Xu, “Bi layer formation at the anode interface in Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu solder joints with high current density,” Journal of Materials Science & Technology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. Ma and P. Wu, “Effects of coupled stressing and solid-state aging on the mechanical properties of Sn–58Bi–0.7Zn solder joint,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 6285–6292, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. O. Mokhtari and H. Nishikawa, “Coarsening of Bi phase and intermetallic layer thickness in Sn-58Bi-X (X=In and Ni) solder joint,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT '13), vol. 15, pp. 250–253, Dalian, China, August 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L.-T. Chen and C.-M. Chen, “Electromigration study in the eutectic SnBi solder joint on the Ni/Au metallization,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 962–969, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C.-M. Chen and C.-C. Huang, “Effects of silver doping on electromigration of eutectic SnBi solder,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 461, no. 1-2, pp. 235–241, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. Hu, Y. Li, Y.-C. Chan, and F. Wu, “Effect of nano Al2O3 particles doping on electromigration and mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi solder joints,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1226–1233, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Glazer, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of Pb-free solder alloys for low-cost electronic assembly: a review,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 693–700, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. O. Mokhtari and H. Nishikawa, “Correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Bi-X solders,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 651, pp. 831–839, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. Sakuyama, T. Akamatsu, K. Uenishi, and T. Sato, “Effects of a third element on microstructure and mechanical properties of eutectic Sn-Bi solder,” Transactions of the Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 98–103, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. Y. Kubota, I. Shohji, T. Tsuchida, and K. Nakamura, “Tensile properties of low-melting point Sn-Bi-Sb solder,” in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Electronics Packaging Technology Conferenc, (EPTC '14), December 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. L. Ma and P. Wu, “Improved microstructure and mechanical properties for Sn58Bi0.7Zn solder joint by addition of graphene nanosheets,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, no. 671, pp. 127–136, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. P. He, X.-C. Lü, T.-S. Lin et al., “Improvement of mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi alloy with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 22, supplement 3, pp. s692–s696, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Peng and K. Deng, “Study on the mechanical properties of the novel Sn–Bi/Graphene nanocomposite by finite element simulation,” Journal of Alloys & Compounds, vol. 625, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Gao, S. Xue, L. Zhang, Z. Sheng, G. Zeng, and F. Ji, “Effects of trace rare earth Nd addition on microstructure and properties of SnAgCu solder,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 643–648, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. Hou, D. Li, L. Han, and L. Ji, “Effect of lanthanum addition on microstructure and corrosion behavior of Al-Sn-Bi anodes,” Journal of Rare Earths, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 129–132, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. Shen, P. Septiwerdani, and Z. Chen, “Elastic modulus, hardness and creep performance of SnBi alloys using nanoindentation,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 558, pp. 253–258, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Jin and M. McCormack, “Dispersoid additions to a Pb-free solder for suppression of microstructural coarsening,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 735–739, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. Shen, Z. Y. Tan, and Z. Chen, “Nanoindentation study on the creep resistance of SnBi solder alloy with reactive nano-metallic fillers,” Materials Science & Engineering: A, vol. 561, no. 3, pp. 232–238, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. H. Raeder, L. E. Felton, V. A. Tanzi, and D. B. Knorr, “The effect of aging on microstructure, room temperature deformation, and fracture of Sn-Bi/Cu solder joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 611–617, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Niu, C. Li, Z. Du, C. Guo, and S. Chen, “A thermodynamic assessment of the Bi-Mg-Sn ternary system,” Calphad: Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry, vol. 39, pp. 37–46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. H. Raeder, L. E. Felton, D. B. Knorr, G. B. Schmeelk, and D. Lee, “Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Sn-Bi based solders,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE/CHMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology (IEMT) Symposium, pp. 119–127, October 1993. View at Scopus
  78. Q. S. Zhu, H. Y. Song, H. Y. Liu, Z. G. Wang, and J. K. Shang, “Effect of Zn addition on microstructure of Sn-Bi joint,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, (ICEPT-HDP '09), pp. 1043–1046, August 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. Suganuma, T. Sakai, K.-S. Kim, Y. Takagi, J. Sugimoto, and M. Ueshima, “Thermal and mechanical stability of soldering QFP with Sn-Bi-Ag lead-free alloy,” IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 257–261, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. P. J. Shang, Z. Q. Liu, D. X. Li, and J. K. Shang, “TEM observations of the growth of intermetallic compounds at the SnBi/Cu interface,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2579–2584, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. K. Sujan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, and A. B. M. Afifi, “Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate,” Materials Characterization, vol. 97, pp. 199–209, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. C. Yang, C. E. Ho, C. W. Chang, and C. R. Kao, “Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 101, no. 8, Article ID 084911, pp. 1–6, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. Takaku, X. J. Liu, I. Ohnuma, R. Kainuma, and K. Ishida, “Interfacial reaction and morphology between molten Sn base solders and Cu substrate,” Materials Transactions, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 646–651, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. H. R. Kotadia, A. Panneerselvam, O. Mokhtari, M. A. Green, and S. H. Mannan, “Massive spalling of Cu-Zn and Cu-Al intermetallic compounds at the interface between solders and Cu substrate during liquid state reaction,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 111, no. 7, Article ID 074902, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. F. Zou, Q. K. Zhang, and Z. F. Zhang, “Eliminating interfacial segregation and embrittlement of bismuth in SnBi/Cu joint by alloying Cu substrate,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 308–311, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. P. L. Liu and J. K. Shang, “Interfacial segregation of bismuth in copper/tin-bismuth solder interconnect,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1019–1023, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. K. Suganuma, “Advances in lead-free electronics soldering,” Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. J. Shang, Z. Q. Liu, D. X. Li, and J. K. Shang, “Bi-induced voids at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface in eutectic SnBi/Cu solder joints,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 409–412, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J.-W. Yoon, C.-B. Lee, and S.-B. Jung, “Interfacial reactions between Sn-58 mass% Bi eutectic solder and (Cu, electroless Ni-P/Cu) substrate,” Materials Transactions, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1821–1826, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. H. R. Kotadia, P. D. Howes, and S. H. Mannan, “A review: on the development of low melting temperature Pb-free solders,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 54, no. 6-7, pp. 1253–1273, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Q. K. Zhang, H. F. Zou, and Z. F. Zhang, “Influences of substrate alloying and reflow temperature on bi segregation behaviors at Sn-Bi/Cu interface,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 40, article 2320, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. F. Li, S. H. Mannan, M. P. Clode, D. C. Whalley, and D. A. Hutt, “Interfacial reactions between molten Sn-Bi-X solders and Cu substrates for liquid solder interconnects,” Acta Materialia, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 2907–2922, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. Schubert, R. Dudek, H. Walter et al., “Reliability assessment of flip-chip assemblies with lead-free solder joints,” in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 1246–1255, May 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. L. Liu and J. K. Shang, “Interfacial embrittlement by bismuth segregation in copper/tin–bismuth Pb-free solder interconnect,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1651–1659, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. F. Hua, Z. Mei, and J. Glazer, “Eutectic Sn-Bi as an alternative to Pb-free solders,” in Proceedings of the 48th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, pp. 277–283, May 1998. View at Scopus