Advances in Materials Science and Engineering

Volume 2016, Article ID 9583757, 12 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9583757

## Studies on Pumice Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Quarry Dust Using Mathematical Modeling Aid of ACO Techniques

^{1}Department of Civil Engineering, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu 624 002, India^{2}Department of Civil Engineering, RVS College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu 624 005, India

Received 1 August 2015; Revised 20 October 2015; Accepted 21 October 2015

Academic Editor: Belal F. Yousif

Copyright © 2016 J. Rex and B. Kameshwari. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

The lightweight aggregate is an aggregate that weighs less than the usual rock aggregate and the quarry dust is a rock particle used in the concrete for the experimentation. The significant intention of the proposed technique is to frame a mathematical modeling with the aid of the optimization techniques. The mathematical modeling is done by minimizing the cost and time consumed in the case of extension of the real time experiment. The proposed mathematical modeling is utilized to predict four output parameters such as compressive strength (Mpa), split tensile strength (Mpa), flexural strength (Mpa), and deflection (in mm). Here, the modeling is carried out with three different optimization techniques like genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and ant colony optimization (ACO) with 80% of data from experiment utilized for the training and the remaining 20% for the validation. Finally, while testing, the error value is minimized and the performance obtained in the ACO for the parameters such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, and deflection is 91%, 98%, 87%, and 94% of predicted values, respectively, in the mathematical modeling.

#### 1. Introduction

The aim of the pumice lightweight concrete is to add the quarry dust with the partial replacement of sand for the perfection of strength and the minimization of the cost and time. The High Performance Concrete may be aptly described as that unique brand of concrete, which meets with the distinctive efficiency and reliability constraints that are not capable of habitual estimation usually by employing the traditional materials and the conventional mixing, placing, and curing procedures. The concrete is one of the widely used construction materials which generally toe the line of the conventional bathtub hazard rate function curve [1]. The concrete predominantly boasts of superior compressive strength which is boosted by several qualities like elevated abrasion resistance, stiffness, minimal permeability, superior durability, greater early strength gain, and reduced cost per unit load [2]. The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), in fact, is a noteworthy material in the creation of concrete which generally functions as its binder to combine all the collected materials. It is pertinent to note that the OPC invariably requires the burning of huge amount of fuel and decay of limestone [3]. In this regard, the lightweight concrete is extensively employed in place of the usual concrete in view of a large number of improved qualities. The most current vantage point of the lightweight concrete is its unique diminished structural dead weight. The dip in the dead weight goes a long way in the diminution in the building expenditure [4]. The employment of the lightweight aggregates (LWA) in concrete offers a multitude of constructive features. The low-density of the concrete enjoyed by the lightweight aggregates normally paves the way for the cutback in the dead load of edifices, footings size and dimensions of columns, slabs, and beams [5]. The tensile strength of a model concrete habitually exceeds that of the prototype concrete. Hence, it is all the more essential to be aware of the tensile qualities of the model concrete in the whole modeling task [6]. With a view to augmenting the fracture resistance of the cementitious materials, fibers are recurrently supplemented, which leads to the formation of a composite material compressive strength and tensile strength. The compressive strength is individual for the structural applications while the flexural strength is specific for the pavement applications [7]. The fines having less than 150-micron dimension are segregated from the unprocessed crusher dust and the crusher dust devoid of the micro fines is effectively utilized for the overall substitution of sand in masonry and experimented for the fundamental compressive strength [8]. The impact of the crushed stone dust as the fine sand leads to the enhancement in the flexural strength in relation to the concrete with the natural sand and the value goes southward as the percentage of the crusher dust goes upward [9]. In this connection the quarry dust has been kick-started as a viable substitute for the river sand which amazingly adds on additional advantages to the concrete. It is everybody’s knowledge that the quarry dust reinforces the strength of the concrete as against the concrete generated out of an equivalent quantity of the river sand, though it paves the way for diminution in the workability of the concrete [10]. In an associated expansion, sizeable quantities of the quarry dust are parked in plenty in the region of caliber in the crushed rock sites. The quarry dust is recognized as the highly functional filler in the bituminous concrete [11]. In the highways construction, it is a common procedure to deploy the quarry fines to steady the lateritic materials employed in the road pavements. However, it is unfortunate that the relative benefit is not found to be entirely exploited in the building of structural elements in the edifices and corresponding structures [12]. The most cost-conscious and the simplest method to achieve a viable alternative for the natural sand is attained from the limestone quarries, the lateritic sand, and the crushing natural stone quarries which is called the manufactured sand [13]. Several investigations were carried out on the cubes and beams to assess the compressive, flexural strengths of the concrete made of the Quarry Rock Dust for three diverse proportions and five dissimilar techniques. Durability tests were carried out for the concrete with the Quarry Rock Dust and analyzed and contrasted with the traditional concrete [14]. In view of the fact that their properties are more or less the same as that of the sand, the marble sludge powder and the quarry dust are effectively employed as fine aggregate in the cement concrete [15]. In this regard, the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is somewhat substituted by fly ash, bottom ash, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) by weights of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. The mathematical modeling based forecast, in turn, is performed with the active support of the optimization method which is capable of effectively evaluating the compressive strength, the split tensile strength, and the flexural strength with the aid of the recognized input values. The quality of the paper is the strength of pumice lightweight concrete. With partial replacement of the sand with the quarry dust the time and cost are minimized [16].

#### 2. Literature Review

In 2012 Sivakumar and Gomathi [17] got name and fame for projecting the fly ash as one of the godsend gifts which can be used as both supplementary cementitious material and lightweight aggregate. The artificially generated lightweight aggregates were obtained from the industrial byproducts like the fly ash, bottom ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, rice husk, slag or sludge waste or palm oil shell, shale, slate, and clay. The advent of the modern era witnessed with curious eyes the ever-rocking usage of the cost-conscious building materials triggered by the amazing augmentation in the requirement for the lightweight concrete for a host of applications. Of late, the inclusion of the artificial aggregates paved the way for a realistic cutback in the building outlays and has become the cynosure of attraction in view of its shining quality equivalent to those of the traditional aggregates.

In 2013 Kabir et al. [18] amazingly advocated the potential utilization of the early-day compressive strength outcomes to forecast the characteristic strength of the standard weight concrete which was the subject matter of research. An easy mathematical model equipped with the acumen of forecasting the compressive strength of concrete at any age was elegantly launched for both the stone and the local aggregate concrete. The data deployed in this exploration were gathered from certain earlier researches and modern investigational endeavors. The evaluations performed by means of the innovative technique employing diverse data effectively illustrated convincing forecast of the concrete strength at various ages such as 7, 14, and 28 days with incredible excellence.

In 2013 Afify and Soliman [19] had their glorious days when they valiantly launched the lightweight aggregates and the chemical admixtures which cast a very significant part in the manufacture of the lightweight concrete. It was heartening that the innovative artificial coarse aggregate was in the pipeline, riveting the eager eyes of the enthusiastic experimenter, and it was well-geared to be deployed in the production of the lightweight concrete. The captioned investigation was spearheaded with an eye on ascertaining the viability of the lightweight aggregate type commercially offered in the domain of the concrete industry in Egypt. The configuration performance of the tested beams and slabs was subjected to deep experimentation with special focus on their deflections, longitudinal strain and cracking against the backdrop of various stages of loading in addition to the final loads and modes of breakdown.

In 2013 Devi [20] vividly explained the corrosion as the fundamental durability issue triggering the corrosion of the concrete structures. Thus, the underlying aim behind the investigation is to evaluate the strength and corrosion resisting the qualities of concrete having the quarry dust as the fine aggregate together with calcium nitrite as the corrosion inhibiting admixture at the dosage of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% in terms of weight of the cement. Experimentations were performed to ascertain the strength, the water absorption capacity, and the durability and the outcomes were analyzed and contrasted with the natural sand concrete. The corrosion resistance efficiency was evaluated by means of the impressed voltage method, the rapid chloride permeability test, and the gravimetric weight loss technique. The cheering outcomes proclaimed the efficacy of the quarry dust as the most appropriate alternative for the river sand in the concrete which is competent to perk up the strength of the concrete, and especially with the addition of the inhibitor it is found to offer very effective resistance against the corrosion.

In 2013 Nagpal et al. [21] were wise enough to advocate the appropriateness of the crushed stone dust waste as the fine aggregate for the concrete which was analyzed and its fundamental traits contrasted with those of the traditional concrete. Two vital mixes were chosen for the natural sand to attain the M25 and M30 grade concrete. The equivalent mixes were attained by substituting the natural sand with the stone dust in part and also completely. The fascinating outcomes proved without any iota of doubt that the crushed stone dust waste had the quality of being employed extensively and effectually as a substitute for the natural sand in the concrete. In the test investigations regarding the strength qualities of the concrete using the crushed stone dust as the fine aggregate it was unequivocally established that the enhancement in the compressive strength, the flexural strength, and the tensile strength of the concrete had been awesome and amazing.

In 2014 Subbulakshmi and Vidivelli [22] convincingly spelt out the fact that the High Performance Concrete was capable of accomplishing incredibly higher performance from the concrete as against the one achieved by the routing concrete. The ambit of the current investigation was elongated to cover the research regarding the impact of the quarry dust towards the efficiency in accomplishment of the High Performance Concrete. An earnest endeavor was made to keep a keen eye on the mechanical qualities of High Performance Concrete created with quarry dust material. The strength qualities like the compressive strength and flexural strength were subjected to experimentation to ascertain the optimum substitution of the quarry dust. The feat of the concrete ratio and quarry dust substitution level on the compressive strength of the quarry dust concrete also became the subject matter of intensive investigation.

#### 3. Proposed Methodology

The technique effectively employed forecast the objective function by means of the mighty mathematical modeling. The training and testing technique is deployed to ascertain the objective function of the mathematical model. The coarse aggregate (CA), fine aggregate (FA), cement, water, silica fume (SF), superplasticizer (SP), quarry dust (QD), load (KN), and ultimate load (KN) are the various significant parameters that are made use of to train the mathematical model by exploiting 80% test database and the residual 20% finds itself grossly engaged in authenticating the mathematical model. Once the authentication is over, the mathematical model is well set to pursue its paramount purpose of ushering in the objective function of the concrete mixing task. Thereafter, the optimization algorithm is entrusted with the indubitable task of predicting various parameters such as optimal compressive strength (Mpa), split tensile strength (Mpa), flexural strength (Mpa), and deflection (in mm). With this end in view, a feast of diverse optimization algorithms are used to evaluate the optimal solutions and the most prominent among them are kingpin genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), ant colony optimization (ACO), and artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization algorithm. The related optimization algorithms invariably resort to their own unique optimization procedures for bringing to limelight the optimal value. In the optimization procedure, at the out the constraints such as the minimum cost and time reduction are assigned. The objective functions are effectively evaluated by means of the optimal solutions like coarse aggregate (CA), fine aggregate (FA), cement, water, silica fume (SF), superplasticizer (SP), quarry dust (QD), load (KN), and ultimate load (KN). In fact the characteristic of the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm procedure is mainly assigned the paramount task of ascertaining the optimal solutions like compressive strength (Mpa), split tensile strength (Mpa), flexural strength (Mpa), and deflection (in mm) which pave the way for the incredible scaling down of the financial outlays together with fabulous decrease in the time-frame.

##### 3.1. Materials Used for Experimental Work

In the experimental work, the Ordinary Portland Cement is used. Normal river sand is used as fine aggregate with specific gravity of 2.82 and the course aggregate used is the pumice lightweight aggregate of size 16 mm. The mix design is based on the ACI method. The chemical properties of the pumice aggregate are presented in Table 1.