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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2019, Article ID 1342547, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1342547
Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Nanofibrillar Cellulose from Agave tequilana Weber Bagasse

1Department of Water and Energy, University of Guadalajara Campus Tonalá 45425, Mexico
2Polymers Research Laboratory (POLIUNA), Chemistry Department, National University of Costa Rica, Heredia 3000, Costa Rica
3Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper, University of Guadalajara, Tonalá 450110, Mexico
4Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo 00076, Finland

Correspondence should be addressed to Belkis C. Sulbarán-Rangel; xm.gdu.socimedaca@narablus.sikleb

Received 13 October 2018; Revised 2 December 2018; Accepted 27 December 2018; Published 12 February 2019

Academic Editor: Zhonghua Yao

Copyright © 2019 Hasbleidy Palacios Hinestroza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The bagasse of Agave tequilana Weber is one of the most abundant agroindustrial wastes in the state of Jalisco. However, at the present time, there is no technical use for this waste, and its high availability makes it an environmental problem. The objective of this research was to take advantage of this waste and give it an added value to be used in the elaboration of advanced materials. In this sense, the agave bagasse cellulose was obtained using an organosolv method. To obtain the nanofibrils, the cellulose was passed through 6 cycles of a microfluidizer. The material was classified by FTIR, confirming the presence of the functional groups (O-H, C-H, C-C, and C-O-C), characteristics of cellulose, and the elimination of hemicellulose and lignin present in agave bagasse without treatment. The X-ray diffraction technique allowed the determination of the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose nanofibers, which was 68.5%, with a negative zeta potential of −42 mV. The images from the atomic force microscopy helped for the observation of the degree of fibrillation in the cellulose, and with the software ImageJ, the average diameter of the nanofibers was determined to be 75 ± 5 nm with a relatively uniform length of 1.0–1.2 μm. Finally, by means of thermogravimetric analysis, it was found that the obtained cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) supported high temperatures of thermal decomposition, so it was concluded that due to the diameter of the fibrils, the high resistance to pressure, and elasticity, the nanofibrils obtained in this investigation can be used in the elaboration of advanced materials.