Research Article  Open Access
Solmaz Mustafaeva, Salim Asadov, "Charge Transport and Thermoemf in TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} Solid Solutions", Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2019, Article ID 9285359, 5 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9285359
Charge Transport and Thermoemf in TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} Solid Solutions
Abstract
TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} solid solutions have been prepared by direct elemental synthesis. The dependences of the thermoelectric properties and DC conductivity on temperature have been studied in TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} solid solutions. In terms of hopping mechanism of charge transfer, the parameters of localized states in the forbidden gap of TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} have been evaluated. The type of conductivity has been determined from the temperature dependences of thermoelectric power of TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} solid solutions.
1. Introduction
Ternary thallium sulfides and are representatives of anisotropic semiconductors with high magnetic, photosensitivity, and roentgensensitivity properties [1, 2]. Obtaining solid solutions with the base of these compounds is of interest because the study of their properties makes it possible to gain insight into general aspects of propertycomposition relationships. These ternary compounds crystalize in the monoclinic structure and have the following lattice parameters: = 11.36; = 5.304; = 6.799 Å; ; and Z = 4 (space group ) for [1, 2] and a = 10.29; b = 10.284; c = 15.175 Å; and (space group ) for [3].
In [4], the phase diagram of the system has been constructed (simple eutectic system, eutectic at 80 mol.% with a melting point of 953 K). It was established that this system contains limited series of monoclinic solid solutions based on the ternary endmembers. At an annealing temperature of 933 K, the solid solutions based on the endmembers extend to 5 mol.% and 10 mol.% . The band gap of (; 0.005; 0.01) single crystals has been shown to decrease with increasing Fe concentration and increase with increasing temperature.
From the nature of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and its magnitude, it follows that the is in the paramagnetic state at room temperature, while shows a typical diamagnetic state [5]. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility curve of revealed anomalies, indicating phase transitions in this compound. An increase in the content of gallium cations in solid solutions reduces the specific magnetization and increases the differences in the temperatures of Curie–Weiss.
There are several review volumes devoted to the early works on physics of diluted magnetic semiconductors [6, 7] that are most popular these days [8, 9]. Various semiconductor chalcogenide materials based on solid solutions with varying properties are suitable for use in electronic devices [10–12].
The application of band theory to “magnetic” materials with partially filled 3d or 4f shells (for example, TlFeS_{2}) does not allow making any valuable predictions. Therefore, if we want to use magnetic semiconductors, it is necessary to establish regularities of changes in the properties of the factors that change the concentration of charge carriers. In the TlFeS_{2} compound, the chemical bond is intermediate between pure ionic and covalent bond types. This is determined by the degree of electron affinity of anions and cations. The physical properties of TlFeS_{2} are strongly influenced by the contribution of the electrons of the doping components. Therefore, the study of the effect of doping components on the physical parameters, the mechanism of charge transfer, and temperatureconcentration dependences of thermoelectric power, as well as the determination of correlations between them in materials of the TlFeS_{2} type is an urgent task. To date, of the temperature dependence of conductivity and thermoelectric power of materials based on TlFeS_{2}, the composition of which is partially chemically modified, has not been systematically studied. This modification of the composition gives the material new properties and can be used to control physical parameters.
The results of our studies of the effect of gallium concentration on transport phenomena in the TlFeS_{2} magnetic material are given below. We compared the properties of TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} solid solutions with the properties of pure TlFeS_{2}. The study of the temperature dependence of electrical and thermoelectric properties of isostructural TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} allows to establish the effect of the composition on the conductivity and thermoelectric power of the samples under study.
2. Materials and Methods
The starting chemicals used in our preparations were highpurity constituent elements: Tl00, gallium (5NGa), sulfur (OSCh 165), and iron (3N Fe). The ternary compounds and were synthesized by reaction of stoichiometric elemental mixtures, which were melted in silica tubes sealed off under a vacuum of 10^{−3} Pa. The completion of the synthesis of the ternary compounds and was checked by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Xray diffraction (XRD). The results were compared to earlier data [1–3]. The alloys were prepared by reacting the appropriate mixtures of the ternary compounds and at 1000 K for 5–7 h in silica tubes sealed off under a vacuum of 10^{−3} Pa. Next, the alloys were vacuumannealed in two steps: first at 953 K for 200 h and then at 933 K for 500 h. The annealed alloys were furnacecooled to room temperature. The phase composition of the obtained alloys was determined by XRD at room temperature on a DRON2 diffractometer with CuKα radiation.
To examine the effect of the partial cation substitution on the properties of the solid solutions of TlGaS_{2}TlFeS_{2} system, ( and 0.1) was synthesized [4, 5]. For the experiments, we used freshly grown samples on the basis of which practically do not deteriorate in the open air for a long time. samples for electrical measurements had the form of parallelepipeds with thickness . Electrical contacts to their end faces were made by electrolytic copper deposition.
The electrical DC conductivity () of the samples was measured by the fourprobe method with an accuracy up to 3%. The thermopower of the prepared samples was measured by the differential method [13–15] with an accuracy of 5%. Electrical and thermoelectric properties of were measured in the temperature range 80–355 K. The amplitude of the external DC electric field applied to the samples was from the Ohmic region of their currentvoltage characteristics.
3. Results and Discussion
The results of Xray phase analysis of TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1) heattreated samples are shown in Figures 1 and 2. On the diffraction patterns of these samples, only Xray lines of crystalline phase of TlFeS_{2} are present. The results of XRD samples indicate that they crystallize in monoclinic symmetry (C2/m) under normal conditions.
In TlFe_{1−x}Ga_{x}S_{2} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1) crystals with increasing gallium concentration, parameter a decreases, parameter b increases, and the parameter c does not change substantially (Figure 2). For crystals, a = 11.654(1), b = 5.292(2), = 6.811(3) Å, and β = 116.87° which agrees well with data [1–4].
The results of the investigations into the electrical and thermoelectric properties of samples are presented below. Figure 3 depicts the temperature dependences of the thermopower for and (curves 2 and 3) in the temperature range 80–355 K. As the temperature increases from 80 to 150 K, the thermopower of increases moderately and the sign of the thermoemf is positive, which suggests that the studied crystal has ptype conductivity. With the further increase in the temperature up to 355 K, the thermopower sharply decreases and the inversion of the thermoemf sign takes place. The negative sign of the thermopower indicates that electrons are the major charge carriers in .
According to [16], the thermopower of ptype chalcogenide semiconductors can be represented in the form:where is Boltzmann’s constant, is the electron charge, is the activation energy for conduction, and is the temperature coefficient of the activation energy for conduction. The hightemperature () slope of the curve was determined to be = 0.047 eV. Extrapolating the hightemperature portion of the curve to the vertical axis , we obtained a vertical intercept of 212 µV/K. The cutoff thermoelectric power according to equation (1) allowed us to find the temperature coefficient of the activation energy for conduction (), which was determined to be 2.98 × 10^{−4} eV/K. This made it possible to estimate the temperature coefficient of the optical band gap () in as [16]. We obtained β = 5.96 × 10^{−4} eV/K.
In , the ptype conduction was observed in a more wide temperature range (85–327 K). With a further increase in the temperature up to 355 K, the sign of the thermopower was negative.
Figure 3 also shows the temperature dependence of thermoelectric power for (curve 1). The inversion of the thermoemf^{1} sign in takes place at 130 K, i.e., the inversion point of thermopower sign in crystals has been shown to increase from 130 to 327 K with increasing Ga concentration (Table 1).

Figure 4 shows typical temperature dependences of conductivity for samples. Hightemperature branches of the dependences had exponential character with slopes 0.33, 0.09, and 0.10 eV for , 0.025, and 0.1, correspondingly. As it was noted above, in , the slope of dependence was found to be . This discrepancy in the values of and , when is two and more than twice as large as , was also observed in GaSb, Ge, and GaAs [16]. The discrepancy between and should be expected when the slope of the plot of lnσ against is contributed by the thermal activation of carrier mobility.
After the exponential decay, the conductivity of crystals in the Arrhenius coordinates of the curve did not have a constant slope, i.e., was characterized by a monotonically decreasing activation energy with decreasing temperature. This behavior of the DC conductivity in at low temperatures suggests that charge transfer occurs through the variablerangehopping mechanism, provided the current is transferred by charge carriers at the states localized near the Fermi level [16]. This is also evidenced by the temperature dependence of conductivity in the form of a Mott plot: logσ against (Figure 5). From these plots (), the density of localized states near the Fermi level was evaluated aswhere is the localization radius.
Obtained values for and are listed in Table 2. The density of localized states near the Fermi level of crystals has been shown to increase by more than two orders with increasing Ga concentration. The localization radius was taken to be = 14 Å, by analogy with that in [1]. Using the relationwe evaluate the hop distance in the crystals as a function of temperature. The average hop distances in studied crystals (Table 2) significantly (by 2–8 times) exceeded the average distance between the centers of localization of charge carriers.

From the expression given in [16],we estimated the scatter of the trapping states near the Fermi level: for and 50 meV for . Knowing and using the relationwe calculated the trap concentration in , whose values are shown in Table 2. The activation energy for hopping conduction in the studied crystals evaluated as [17]is 65 meV for and 45 meV for .
Consider now the temperature dependence of thermoelectric power in the region of hopping conduction in . As it is seen from Figure 3, at low temperatures, when hopping conductivity takes place in studied crystals, the sign of thermopower is positive. The value of thermoemf in samples has been shown to increase with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of thermoelectric power in the region of hopping conduction is known to have the following form [16]:where is the temperature coefficient of thermoelectric power.
Obtained for solid solutions, lowtemperature dependences are linear functions of temperature, which is consistent with equation (7). The thermoelectric power at (vertical intercept) is A_{1} = −30 µV/K in . The temperature coefficient of thermoelectric power was determined to be B_{1} = 0.4 µV/K^{2}; that is, lowtemperature thermoelectric power of the crystal can be represented by the formula:
In , the temperature coefficient of thermoelectric power at low temperatures was determined to be
That is,
The thermopower is determined primarily by the density of states and hence has positive sign in the region of hopping conduction. Thus, it was demonstrated that, at low temperatures when hopping conduction is dominant, the thermopower of is positive and proportional to the temperature.
In the study of temperature dependence of conductivity of solid solutions on curves lnσ vs 10^{3}/, the anomalies were observed (Figure 4). With the increase in temperature from 80 K, the conductivity of increases, then passing through a minimum value. The temperatures of conductivity minimum were equal to 171 K for and 164 K for . These temperatures correspond to the temperature of the antiferromagnetic phase transition () of type II in the studied solid solutions, when in the antiferromagnetic antiparallel orientation of the spins disappears and it becomes paramagnetic. In , Neel temperature determined from measurements of the magnetic susceptibility is equal to T_{N} = 196 K [3]. Thus, increasing the concentration of gallium ions in the solid solutions led to the displacement of the Neel temperature to a lower temperature (Table 1).
4. Conclusions
At temperatures in a dc electric field, the (x = 0, 0.025, and 0.1) crystals have been shown to exhibit the variablerangehopping conduction through states localized near the Fermi level. In terms of hopping mechanism of charge transfer, the density of localized states near the Fermi level, their spread in energy, the activation energy, and the average hop distance have been evaluated. The density of localized states near the Fermi level of crystals have been shown to increase by more than two orders, but average hop distance have been shown to decrease with increasing gallium concentration. The type of conductivity and the inversion point of thermopower sign have been determined for from temperature dependences of thermoemf. The inversion point of thermopower sign in crystals has been shown to increase from 130 to 327 K, and the temperature of phase transition () decreases from 196 to 164 K with increasing Ga concentration.
Data Availability
The data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
This study was supported by the Science Development Foundation of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan (grants EİFBGM3BRFTF2+/201715/05/1M13 and EİFBGM4RFTF1/201721/05/1M07).
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Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Solmaz Mustafaeva and Salim Asadov. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.