Essential Oils-Loaded Electrospun Biopolymers: A Future Perspective for Active Food PackagingRead the full article
Advances in Polymer Technology publishes articles reporting important developments in polymeric materials, their manufacture and processing, polymer product design and considering the economic and environmental impacts of polymer technology.
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Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline- Supported Cu-CuO Core-Shell on 316L Stainless Steel Electrodes for Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor
In this article, we reported the elaboration of a nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on the polyaniline-supported Cu-CuO core-shell structure prepared on the 316L stainless steel electrode by electrochemical methods. In the first step, polyaniline (PANI) film was electrodeposited on the 316L substrate from a solution of 0.1 M aniline and 0.5 M sulfuric acid in absolute ethanol by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. In the second step, the copper particles were electrodeposited on the PANI film from CuCl2·2H2O 0.01 M precursor prepared in a KCl 0.1 M solution by the CV method. In the third step, Cu particles were partially oxidized to CuO by the CV method in a NaOH 0.1 M electrolyte to form a Cu-CuO core-shell structure supported on the PANI film. The as-prepared electrode (Cu-CuO/PANI/316L) was used to detect glucose in a NaOH 0.1 M solution. The Cu-CuO/PANI/316L sensor exhibited a linear range of 0.1–5 mM (R2 = 0.995) with a detection limit of 0.1 mM (S/N = 3) and high sensitivity of (25.71 mA·mM−1·cm−2). In addition, no significant interference was observed from sucrose, maltose, lactose, and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the polyaniline-supported Cu-CuO core-shell structure has the potential to be applied as an electrode material for the nonenzymatic glucose sensor.
Analysis of Reactive Injection Compression Molding by Numerical Simulations and Experiments
Injection compression molding is an injection molding process with the addition of a compression stage after the injection. This process is useful for the injection molding of precision parts. A stable and controlled manufacturing process is needed to guarantee reliability of complex products, and usually process optimization is achieved by experimental and time consuming approaches. However, for being competitive a minimal market time is a very important requirement and computer simulations can help to optimize the process at the only expense of computational time. This paper reports and discusses for the first time the results of a 3D finite element simulation of reactive injection compression molding (RICM) by commercial software for the production of rubber diaphragms. In particular, the stages of mold filling dynamics and material curing are analyzed and the results verified with experimental tests. To get an accurate representation of the process, the rheological behavior, thermal properties, and kinetic behavior during curing of the real rubber compound were described by mathematical models. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a capillary rheometer are employed to characterize the rubber material in order to achieve an appropriate curing reaction and viscosity models, respectively. The computations are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that reliable information on material viscosity and curing kinetics can play a key role in making well-founded predictions and avoiding trial and error methods.
Chitosan-Based Layer-by-Layer Assembly: Towards Application on Quality Maintenance of Lemon Fruits
We fabricated a novel chitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) layer-by-layer assembly system to facilitate the postharvest quality of the fresh produce. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), TA-XT2 texture analyzer, water vapor permeability (WVP) analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to compare the properties of chitosan and layer-by-layer assembly. The strategy involved the optimization of water vapor permeability, puncture strength, and elasticity properties of multiplayer polymer coating. Results showed that the lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), coated by chitosan-CMC layer-by-layer assembly, displayed significantly higher lemon firmness and vitamin C content with excellent morphology, as well as inhibited weight loss and flesh browning. This study could provide support for quality maintenance in the fruit and vegetable industry and make a significant contribution to the utilization of the natural polysaccharide as a viable resource.
Analysis of the Fiber Laydown Quality in Spunbond Processes with Simulation Experiments Evaluated by Blocked Neural Networks
We present a simulation framework for spunbond processes and use a design of experiments to investigate the cause-and-effect relations of process and material parameters on the fiber laydown on a conveyor belt. The analyzed parameters encompass the inlet air speed and suction pressure, as well as the E modulus, density, and line density (titer) of the filaments. The fiber laydown produced by the virtual experiments is statistically quantified, and the results are analyzed by a blocked neural network. This forms the basis for the prediction of the fiber laydown characteristics and enables a quick ranking of the significance of the influencing effects. We conclude our research by an analysis of the nonlinear cause-and-effect relations. Compared to the material parameters, suction pressure and inlet air speed have a negligible effect on the fiber mass distribution in (cross)machine direction. Changes in the line density of the filament have a 10 times stronger effect than changes in E modulus or density. The effect of E modulus on the throwing range in machine direction is of particular note, as it reverses from increasing to decreasing in the examined parameter regime.
Fabrication of Nanostructured Polyamic Acid Membranes for Antimicrobially Enhanced Water Purification
Water scarcity and quality challenges facing the world can be alleviated by Point-of-Use filtration devices (POU). The use of filtration membranes in POU devices has been limited largely because of membrane fouling, which occurs when suspended solids, microbes, and organic materials are deposited on the surface of filtration membranes significantly decreasing the membrane lifespan, thereby increasing operation costs. There is need therefore to develop filtration membranes that are devoid of these challenges. In this work, nanotechnology was used to fabricate nanostructured polyamic acid (nPAA) membranes, which can be used for microbial decontamination of water. The PAA was used as support and reducing agent to introduce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with antimicrobial properties. The nPAA membranes were fabricated via thermal and wet phase inversion technique and then tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus following standard tests. The resulting nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersibility and stability as indicated by the color change of the solution and increments of optical density at 415 nm for AgNPs and 520 nm for AuNPs. The wet phase inversion process used produced highly porous, strong, and flexible nPAA membranes, which showed well-dispersed spherical AuNPs and AgNPs whose rough average size was found to be 35 nm and 25 nm, respectively. The AgNPs demonstrated inhibition for both gram positive E. coli and gram negative S. aureus, with a better inhibitory activity against S. aureus. A synergistic enhancement of AgNPs antimicrobial activity upon AuNPs addition was demonstrated. The nPAA membranes can thus be used to remove microbials from water and can hence be used in water purification.
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Lanthanum-Doped MgAl-Layered Double Hydroxide/Graphene Oxide Hybrid and Its Application as Flame Retardant for Thermoplastic Polyurethane
A novel lanthanum-doped MgAl-layered double hydroxide/graphene oxide hybrid (La LDH/GO) with a La3+/Al3+ molar ratio of 0.05 was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then, La LDH/GO was added into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) to investigate its effect on flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and thermal stability of TPU composites. The cone calorimeter test (CCT) results indicated that the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and peak smoke production rate (PSPR) values of TPU with La LDH/GO decreased by 33.1% and 51% compared with neat TPU, respectively. Therefore, La LDH/GO can play a good role in flame retardancy and smoke suppression of TPU matrix during combustion. In the meantime, La LDH/GO could improve the char yield of TPU composites, which is attributed to the interaction between the physical barrier effect of GO and the catalytic effect of 0.05 La LDH.