Scalable Electrochemical Synthesis of Novel Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles and Its Application to High-Sensitive Detection of 4-Nitrophenol in Aqueous SystemRead the full article
Advances in Polymer Technology publishes articles reporting important developments in polymeric materials, their manufacture and processing, polymer product design and considering the economic and environmental impacts of polymer technology.
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Supramolecular Biopolymers for Tissue Engineering
Supramolecular biopolymers (SBPs) are those polymeric units derived from macromolecules that can assemble with each other by noncovalent interactions. Macromolecular structures are commonly found in living systems such as proteins, DNA/RNA, and polysaccharides. Bioorganic chemistry allows the generation of sequence-specific supramolecular units like SBPs that can be tailored for novel applications in tissue engineering (TE). SBPs hold advantages over other conventional polymers previously used for TE; these materials can be easily functionalized; they are self-healing, biodegradable, stimuli-responsive, and nonimmunogenic. These characteristics are vital for the further development of current trends in TE, such as the use of pluripotent cells for organoid generation, cell-free scaffolds for tissue regeneration, patient-derived organ models, and controlled delivery systems of small molecules. In this review, we will analyse the 3 subtypes of SBPs: peptide-, nucleic acid-, and oligosaccharide-derived. Then, we will discuss the role that SBPs will be playing in TE as dynamic scaffolds, therapeutic scaffolds, and bioinks. Finally, we will describe possible outlooks of SBPs for TE.
The Effect of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Thermal Conductivity and Cellular Size of Polyurethane Foam
Polyurethane (PU) foam is known as the popular material for the applications in many fields of industry and life. To improve the mechanical and thermal properties of this material, in this research, PU foam was reinforced with aniline-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectrum of modified MWCNTs showed the aniline was grafted on the surface of MWCNTs through the appearance of –NH2 stretches. The effect of MWCNTs with and without modification on the density, porosity, compressive strength, and heat conductivity of PU/MWCNT foam nanocomposites was investigated. The dispersibility of MWCNTs in the PU matrix was enhanced after modification with aniline. Compressive strength of PU nanocomposite reached the highest value after adding 3 wt.% of modified MWCNTs into PU foam. Besides, the water uptake of PU nanocomposites using 3 wt.% of MWCNTs was decreased to 13.4% as compared to that using unmodified MWCNTs. The improvement in thermal conductivity of PU/aniline-modified MWCNT nanocomposite was observed due to the change in the cellular size of PU foam in the presence of MWCNTs as shown by SEM images.
Semi-interpenetrating Network Membrane from Polyethyleneimine-Epoxy Resin and Polybenzimidazole for HT-PEM Fuel Cells
In the present work, a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) high-temperature proton exchange membrane based on polyethyleneimine (PEI), epoxy resin (ER), and polybenzimidazole (PBI) was prepared and characterized, aiming at their future application in fuel cell devices. The physical properties of the semi-IPN membrane are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile strength test. The results indicate that the as-prepared PEI-ER/PBI semi-IPN membranes possess excellent thermal stability and mechanical strength. After phosphoric acid (PA) doping treatment, the semi-IPN membranes show high proton conductivities. PA doping level and volume swelling ratio as well as proton conductivities of the semi-IPN membranes are found to be positively related to the PEI content. High proton conductivities of are achieved at 160°C for these PA-doped PEI-ER/PBI series membranes. H2/O2 fuel cell assembled with PA-doped PEI-ER(1 : 2)/PBI membrane delivered a peak power density of 170 mW cm-2 at 160°C under anhydrous conditions.
Development and Performance Evaluation of Cellulose Acetate-Bentonite Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Separation
Membrane science is a state-of-the-art environmentally green technology that ascertains superior advantages over traditional counterparts for CO2 capture and separation. In this research, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising cellulose acetate (CA) with various loadings of bentonite (Bt) clay were fabricated by adopting the phase-inversion technique for CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 separation. The developed pristine and MMMs were characterized for morphological, thermal, structural, and mechanical analyses. Several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and nano-indentation investigations revealed the promising effect of Bt clay in MMMs as compared to pristine CA membrane. Nano-indentation test identified that elastic modulus and hardness of the MMM with 1 wt. loading was increased by 64% and 200%, respectively, compared to the pristine membrane. The permeability decreased with the incorporation of Bt clay due to uniform dispersion of filler attributed to enhanced tortuosity for the gas molecules. Nevertheless, an increase in gas separation performance was observed with Bt addition up to 1 wt. loading. The opposite trend prevailed with increasing Bt concentration on the separation performance owing to filler agglomeration and voids creation. The maximum value of ideal selectivity (CO2/CH4) was achieved at 2 bar pressure with 1 wt. % Bt loading, which is 79% higher than the pristine CA membrane. For CO2/N2, the ideal selectivity was 123% higher compared to the pristine membrane with 1 wt. % Bt loading at 4 bar pressure.
Study of Residual Wall Thickness and Multiobjective Optimization for Process Parameters of Water-Assisted Injection Molding
Residual wall thickness is an important indicator for water-assisted injection molding (WAIM) parts, especially the maximization of hollowed core ratio and minimization of wall thickness difference which are significant optimization objectives. Residual wall thickness was calculated by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The response surface methodology (RSM) model, radial basis function (RBF) neural network, and Kriging model were employed to map the relationship between process parameters and hollowed core ratio, and wall thickness difference. Based on the comparison assessments of the three surrogate models, multiobjective optimization of hollowed core ratio and wall thickness difference for cooling water pipe by integrating design of experiment (DOE) of optimized Latin hypercubes (Opt LHS), RBF neural network, and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was studied. The research results showed that short shot size, water pressure, and melt temperature were the most important process parameters affecting hollowed core ratio, while the effects of delay time and mold temperature were little. By the confirmation experiments for the best solution resulted from the Pareto frontier, the relative errors of hollowed core ratio and wall thickness are 2.2% and 3.0%, respectively. It demonstrated that the proposed hybrid optimization methodology could increase hollowed core ratio and decrease wall thickness difference during the WAIM process.
Peroxymonosulfate Activation on a Hybrid Material of Conjugated PVC and TiO2 Nanotubes for Enhancing Degradation of Rhodamine B under Visible Light
Visible-light-driven photocatalysis is a robust technology for amending the negative effect of pollutants on the environment with a minimum energy use. Herein, we describe a simple approach to producing such a photocatalyst by coupling conjugated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) with the TiO2 nanotube (TNT) thermolysis method. By activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to make a cPVC/TNT/PMS system using visible light as the source, we obtain a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic performance. We show that PMS use at a concentration of 3 mM can fully degrade rhodamine B (RhB) solution at a remarkably high concentration (200 mg L-1) just in 120 min under visible light. The cPVC/TNT/PMS system also shows excellent stability in recycling tests for at least five times. Further, by confining the active species in photocatalytic reactions, we report a thorough understanding of the extent of involvement from those radicals. Our work presents a robust approach to make a high-performance, visible-light-driven photocatalyst, which can be potentially used in practice.