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Education Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 712149, 16 pages
Research Article

Leadership Practices in Effective Schools in Disadvantaged Areas of Canada

Fondements et Pratiques en Éducation, Faculté des Sciences de l'Éducation, Université Laval, 2320 Rue des Bibliothèques, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6

Received 7 September 2012; Revised 4 November 2012; Accepted 6 November 2012

Academic Editor: Hoi Yan Cheung

Copyright © 2012 Yamina Bouchamma. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to examine leadership practices in effective schools located in economically disadvantaged areas of three Canadian provinces: Ontario, Québec, and New Brunswick. Research Design. Our study was conducted in five successful schools selected on the basis of student outcomes on province-wide standardized exams, as well as on some risk factors such as rural area, low socioeconomic level, and proportion of Francophones (Ontario and New Brunswick). To increase the study’s validity, we used triangulation and various data sources: (1) individual interviews; (2) observation of school principals; (3) field documentation; (4) student essays; (5) internal school documents such as mission statement, rules, and directives. Participants. Participants included Department of Education heads and school board administrators, school principals and vice principals, teachers, school counsellors, educational psychologists, parent school board members, and students. Findings. Results show that leadership practices in effective schools can be grouped together around five dimensions: establishing goals and expectations; strategic resourcing; curriculum planning, coordination, and evaluation; promoting and participating in teacher supervision and development; ensuring order and support.