Education Research International / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

How Finnish Muslim Students Perceive and Deal with Religious and Cultural Difference: Negotiating Religious Tradition with Modern Liberal and Postmodern Ideals

Table 1

Ways of perceiving and dealing with difference related to the negotiation of liberal ideals.

Difference is not an issueDifference is a problem-causing matterA conformist way of dealing with differenceDealing with difference by concentrating on oneself

(i) Difference is an insignificant fact
(ii) Difference is a positive fact
(i) Difference causes difficulties in understanding others
(ii) Difference causes difficulties in interacting with others
(iii) Difference is a complex issue
(i) Trying to avoid confrontation
(ii) Adaptation
(iii) Dealing with difference by concentrating on commonality, equality, and togetherness
(i) Adhering to one’s own religion
(ii) Representing one’s own religion

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