Table 4: Coding criteria for instructional qualities evident in teaching practices as represented in interviews and artifacts.

Quality of teachers’ instruction
Little or no focusSome focusMultiple attempts/effortsThorough, focused effort

Sustained attention to goalsTeacher gave little attention to goals, may be one shotTeacher worked on goal in more than one instance, but seems to be little sense of maintaining or building efforts over timeTeacher made multiple attempts to work on goal(s) with a sense of building over timeEvidence of teacher’s very focused and sequential work on goal(s) over an extended period of time

Integrating goals into curriculaTeacher focused on learning skill(s)/process(es) but not how curriculum is linked to learning processesTeacher says they focused on learning skill(s)/process(es) as linked to curriculum, but there is minimal evidenceTeacher describes/shows how goal(s) was integrated into curriculum with explicit attention to how content and learning processes are interwovenTeacher describes/shows how goal(s) was deeply and/or consistently integrated into curriculum as part of learning in content area(s) and may describe how this was uniquely addressed in different content areas and/or texts

Explicit attention to reading, thinking, and/or learning processesTeacher talked about seeking to work on learning process goal(s) but does not make learning process goals or strategies apparent to studentsTeacher talked about attempts to help students understand and use learning process goal(s), but does so in a way that just has students do things (e.g., answer a question), rather than making learning processes transparent to studentsTeacher talked about how they made efforts to address learning process(es) goals, with specific attention to defining/explicating learning processes (e.g., what a process looks like)Teacher talked very specifically about ways in which he/she used specific methods to make the what and how of learning process goal(s) explicit and apparent to students

Promoting/fostering student independenceNo mention and/or little evidence of efforts to build student independenceTalked about methods that might support student independence (e.g., practicing a skill learned), but not with student independence or SRL explicitly as a goalTalked about using specific methods designed to foster student independence but without moving to level of promoting active self-directed learning (e.g., student mastery of specific processes/strategies but not necessarily choosing strategies, self- monitoring, adapting, etc.)Talked about fostering independence in a way that also fosters student self-direction and managing of learning