Table 5: Estimated association between macroaggregate factors and dropout rates with fixed effects.

IndependentNational
variablesample

Returns to higher Ed −10.04
Returns to USE −5.89
Returns to secondary Ed −7.27
Ln GDP per capita −34.25
% informal employment 0.005
% female labor participation 0.25
Teachers for USE campus −0.445
% of 15–18 year olds that migrate1.876
Constant −332.01
No. observations736

Source: own calculations. *, **, and *** indicate that the effect is statistically significant at 10%, 5%, and 1%, respectively.