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Education Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1450102, 15 pages
Review Article

In Search of Alignment: A Review of Impact Studies in Entrepreneurship Education

School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to Uladzimir Kamovich; on.tiu@hcivomak.rimizdalu

Received 23 February 2017; Revised 10 June 2017; Accepted 26 July 2017; Published 27 September 2017

Academic Editor: Thomas Lans

Copyright © 2017 Uladzimir Kamovich and Lene Foss. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study uses the concept of alignment as a framework to examine empirical research on the impact of entrepreneurship education interventions on students. Alignment assumes that effective instruction requires congruence between three instructional components: intended outcomes, instructional processes, and assessment criteria. Given the extant diversity and complexity of entrepreneurship education impact, scholars have not been able to explain how teaching approaches and methods are being adjusted to the variety of expected outcomes. In order to address this gap, we critically reviewed the published empirical studies on entrepreneurship education impact in 20 journals over a 15-year period (2000–2015). We found 16 empirical studies that met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that teaching objectives, teaching methods, and teaching content receive scant attention from researchers. This study will be of value to scholars researching the impact of heterogeneous entrepreneurship education practices and approaches on individuals. Our analytical framework could contribute to less contradictory findings of entrepreneurship education impact studies. We also identify research limitations and suggest avenues for future research.