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Education Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 5160863, 16 pages
Review Article

Competence Models as a Tool for Conceptualizing the Systematic Process of Entrepreneurship Competence Development

1University of Tartu, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia
2Estonian Business School, Lauteri 3, 10114 Tallinn, Estonia

Correspondence should be addressed to Marge Täks; moc.liamg@skat.egram

Received 26 February 2017; Revised 19 May 2017; Accepted 13 July 2017; Published 13 August 2017

Academic Editor: Harm Biemans

Copyright © 2017 Uku Lilleväli and Marge Täks. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Entrepreneurship Education (EE) is believed to be an important key to supporting learners to become entrepreneurial, which means it needs to be approached systematically. Competence models provide a platform to meaningfully embed varying interpretations, learning outcomes, and roles of EE and allow educators and other stakeholders to apply EE systematically throughout all education levels. The aim of this study was to understand how systematic entrepreneurship competence development throughout the education levels is conceptualized in different EE competence models. In other words, what are the critical aspects to consider while constructing systematic competence models for EE purposes? The results of the analysis of the competence models help educators, school boards, policymakers, local municipalities, researchers, and other relevant stakeholders to obtain a clearer understanding of how EE learning outcomes can be systematically achieved at all education levels. However, lacking empirical proof regarding the impact of the models’ application, these models represent the “optimal set” of expected competencies for specific education levels and types. In its original form, a competence model established for a specific education system is unlikely to fit the needs and aims of other education systems. Thus, it is recommended that any model be adapted to a specific need and with a focus on learning outcomes.