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Education Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8475460, 12 pages
Review Article

Measuring Student Transformation in Entrepreneurship Education Programs

Entrepreneurship & Strategy, Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 575 Bay Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3

Correspondence should be addressed to Steven A. Gedeon; ac.nosreyr@noedegs

Received 7 January 2017; Revised 9 March 2017; Accepted 5 April 2017; Published 18 April 2017

Academic Editor: Päivi Tynjälä

Copyright © 2017 Steven A. Gedeon. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This article describes how to measure student transformation primarily within a university entrepreneurship degree program. Student transformation is defined as changes in knowledge (“Head”), skills (“Hand”), and attitudinal (“Heart”) learning outcomes. Following the institutional impact model, student transformation is the primary goal of education and all other program goals and aspects of quality desired by stakeholders are either input factors (professors, courses, facilities, support, etc.) or output performance (number of startups, average starting salary, % employment, etc.). This goal-setting framework allows competing stakeholder quality expectations to be incorporated into a continuous process improvement (CPI) model when establishing program goals. How to measure these goals to implement TQM methods is shown. Measuring student transformation as the central focus of a program promotes harmony among competing stakeholders and also provides a metric on which other program decisions (e.g., class size, assignments, and pedagogical technique) may be based. Different stakeholders hold surprisingly different views on defining program quality. The proposed framework provides a useful way to bring these competing views into a CPI cycle to implement TQM requirements of accreditation. The specific entrepreneurial learning outcome goals described in the tables in this article may also be used directly by educators in nonaccredited programs and single courses/workshops or for other audiences.