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International Journal of Food Science
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 479630, 9 pages
Research Article

Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

1Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique
2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Food Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
3The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), Gothenburg, Sweden

Received 28 May 2014; Accepted 1 September 2014; Published 14 September 2014

Academic Editor: Philip Cox

Copyright © 2014 Maria Eduardo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.