Article of the Year 2022
Optimization and Preliminary Physicochemical Characterization of Pectin Extraction from Watermelon Rind (Citrullus lanatus) with Citric AcidRead the full article
International Journal of Food Science publishes research in all areas of food science. It is a multidisciplinary journal and includes research on enhancing shelf life, food deterioration, food engineering, food handling, food processing and similar.
Chief Editor, Giorgia Spigno, is a Professor of Food Science and Technology at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Her research focuses on the valorisation of agro-food waste, food product development, and food packaging.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Effect of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Functional Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Eri Silkworm Pupa Protein Isolate
Philosamia ricini (Eri silkworm) pupa protein isolate (EPI) was utilized to prepare pupa protein hydrolysate (EPIH) through enzymatic hydrolysis. Additionally, the isolate underwent ultrasonic treatment at 20 kHz to become ultrasound pretreated EPI (EPIU), which was then enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain ultrasound pretreated protein hydrolysate (EPIUH). The physicochemical properties of these samples were investigated, including molecular weight, solubility, foaming and emulsion properties, water- and oil-holding capacity, antioxidant activity, and color. When compared to EPI (used as the control), EPIU exhibited a high degree of hydrolysis at 20 minutes (). At a total process time of 20 minutes, the degree of hydrolysis for EPIH, EPIU, and EPIUH was found to be 13%, 29%, and 41%, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated no difference in molecular weight between EPI and EPIU (11–75 kDa). However, the molecular weight profiles of EPIH and EPIUH were reduced (8–45 kDa), resulting in changes in protein functionalities. The high DH value contributed to the enhancement of antioxidant activity, solubility, emulsion capacity, emulsion stability, and foam capacity of the protein isolate at pH 7. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment of the protein hydrolysate increased the lightness of the protein powder by reducing the enzyme activity of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). These results suggest that ultrasonic pretreatment of the protein hydrolysate could be applied to improve the properties of Eri silkworm pupa protein for use in the food and beverage industry, such as protein-rich beverages or salad dressings.
New Information of the Anatomy and Phytochemical Screening of Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze (Caesalpinioideae-Leguminosae) Seeds
Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.), whose common name is “pracaxi,” is naturally found in the Amazon region. The present study is aimed at analyzing the anatomy, seed histochemistry, and chemical composition in fatty acid profile of P. macroloba seed oils. Seeds were collected in the cities of Belém, Marituba, and São Domingos do Capim-PA. For the study in light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and histochemistry, seeds were sectioned in cross and longitudinal sections of the embryonic axis and fixed in formaldehyde, acetic acid, and 50% ethyl alcohol; neutral-buffered formalin; and formaldehyde and ferrous sulfate and stored in 70% ethyl alcohol. For the anatomical study, the seeds were subjected to the usual techniques of plant anatomy. Histochemical tests were performed on plant material, freehand sectioned, and embedded in histological paraffin with DMSO. The fatty acid profile was determined for gas chromatography (GC-FID). Integument is divided into three strata, monoseriate exotesta, mesotesta formed by several layers of parenchyma cells, and monoseriate endotesta, formed by compressed cells. Cotyledons are composed of thin-walled parenchyma cells with several secretory cavities and secretory idioblasts. The main metabolic classes are lipids, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, proteins, and alkaloids. The main fatty acids found in P. macroloba oil are oleic, behenic, lignoceric, and linoleic. P. macroloba seeds have important anatomical characteristics for their circumscription in Leguminosae and also in Caesalpinioideae, and their oil is rich in fatty acids essential to the human diet, providing many benefits to the human health, such as fatty acids belonging to the omega family (linoleic, oleic).
Gastrointestinal Effects on the Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Properties of South African Fynbos Honey
The Fynbos biome, Western Cape Province, South Africa, produces a unique honey from Apis mellifera capensis. The bioactivity of Fynbos (FB1-FB6) honeys and Manuka, unique manuka factor 15+ (MAN UMF15+) honey subjected to simulated in vitro digestion, was compared. The effect of each phase of digestion on the antioxidant properties and nitric oxide- (NO-) associated immunomodulatory effects was determined. The total phenolic content of MAN (UMF15+) was higher than that of FB honeys, and following digestion, the percentage bioaccessibility (BA) was 68.6% and , respectively. With the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, the activity of FB1 and FB6 was similar to MAN (UMF15+) but reduced for FB2, FB3, FB4, and FB5 with a %BA of 77.9% for MAN (UMF15+) and for FB. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of MAN (UMF15+) and FB honeys was similar and unaltered with digestion. In a cellular environment, using colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, both undigested and the gastric digested honey reduced 2,2-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride- (AAPH-) mediated peroxyl radical formation. In contrast, following gastroduodenal digestion, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased. In murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells, all honeys induced different levels of NO which was significantly increased with digestion for MAN (UMF15+) and FB1. In LPS/IFN-γ stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, only undigested MAN (UMF15+) effectively reduced NO levels, and with digestion, NO scavenging activity of MAN (UMF15+) was reduced but increased for FB5 and FB6. In a noncellular environment, MAN (UMF15+), FB1, FB2, and FB6 scavenged NO, and with digestion, this activity was maintained. This study has identified that undigested and gastric-digested FB honey has antioxidant properties with strong potential anticancer effects following gastroduodenal digestion, related to ROS formation. MAN (UMF15+) had anti-inflammatory effects which were lost postdigestion, and in contrast, FB5 and FB6 had anti-inflammatory effects postdigestion.
Home-Drying Operation Effect on Moisture Content, Electric Energy Consumption, Ascorbic Acid, Total Polyphenol Content, and Color of Sliced “Fuji” Apples
A home dehydrator allows obtaining dried apples that are beneficial to human health, but its operations will affect the chemical and organoleptic quality of this fruit. In this study, the effect of the drying temperature and mass load of sliced fresh “Fuji” apples in a home dehydrator was evaluated with regard to moisture content, electric energy consumption, ascorbic acid, total polyphenol content, and color of the dried fruit. Fresh “Fuji” apples were cut to obtain a uniform slice with a thickness of 4 mm and diameter from 60 to 75 mm. A home dehydrator was operated at 50 and 70°C (nominal temperatures), with a total sliced apple load of 250 and 500 g, uniformly distributed in five trays. Drying was carried out for 7 hours, and every hour, the trays were rotated, changing their position from the top to the bottom. Only the middle tray was always kept in the same position. As result, the level of nominal temperature (50/70°C) was not reached for any of the trays, regardless of the mass load (250/500 g) in the home dehydrator. The temperature average for fruits dried in trays of the home dehydrator that were rotated (top and bottom) and kept in the same position (middle) did not differ () among them. At the end of drying, the apple treatment at 50°C/250 g, 50°C/500 g, 70°C/250 g, and 70°C/500 g reached 23.1, 26.2, 4.3, and 4.5% (w.b.), respectively. The drying conditions at nominal 50°C favored the quality of the dried sliced apples with regard to ascorbic acid and total polyphenol content; however, the treatment at nominal 70°C produced less variation in color with respect to the fresh fruit. The home dehydrator allowed obtaining sliced dried “Fuji” apples that adequately preserve the ascorbic acid, total polyphenol, and color with respect to the fresh fruit.
Evaluation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Heavy Metals Contained in Packaging Material Digest on Prominent Gut Microbiota
Several scientific investigations have revealed that the leaching of metals from packaging material into the packed food is an unavoidable process. Hence, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of leached heavy metals from food packing materials on normal human gut flora. We analysed the effect of vanadium, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury present in digested packaging materials (DPM) on standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70063, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of laboratory-grade heavy metal salts and heavy metals present in DPM was determined by the agar dilution method. For all four bacteria, the MIC of cadmium and arsenic in the DPM was 7 μg/ml and 1.6 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC of mercury in DPM was 1.6 μg/ml for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. faecalis and 1.4 μg/ml for P. aeruginosa. MIC of vanadium for E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and E. faecalis was 2.2 μg/ml, and for K. pneumoniae was 2.0 μg/ml. The difference in MICs of heavy metals in DPMs and heavy metal salts was not statistically significant. MICs were within CODEX-specified permissible levels. Though heavy metals in packaging material have not shown a deleterious effect on representative human gut flora, there is scope to study their effect on the gut microbiome. Thus, understanding the risk of heavy metal ingestion through unknown sources and avoiding any possible ingestion is crucial to preventing chronic diseases.
Modelling the Survival of Acid-Adapted and Nonadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Burkina: A Western African Traditional Fermented Milk Product
Burkina, a traditional fermented dairy product, is consumed in most parts of West Africa, including Ghana. Studies on the microflora of Burkina have indicated the presence of Escherichia coli and other pathogenic organisms. Thus, predicting the survival of E. coli in the product will inform the best manufacturing and handling practices. This study investigated the combined effect of storage temperature and time on the survival of acid-adapted and acid-non-adapted E. coli O157:H7 in Burkina. Samples were pasteurised and inoculated with acid-adapted or acid-non-adapted E. coli O157:H7. They were stored at 5, 15, and 30°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, and 48 h, and the bacteria colonies were enumerated. Growth rate (survival versus time) models were developed using MATLAB software. Observed data were fitted to the Baranyi model using the DMFit curve fitting software. The E. coli O157:H7 strain appeared inherently tolerant to acid, with storage time having the most significant effect on the response parameter, survival (log CFU/mL). A negative correlation was observed for the primary models (survival versus time), which accounted for 79-97% of the relationship (). Although E. coli survived, its growth was inhibited over time regardless of acid adaptation.