International Journal of Food Science has recently been accepted into:
Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and
Emerging Sources Citation Index
International Journal of Food Science publishes research in all areas of food science. It is a multidisciplinary journal and includes research on enhancing shelf life, food deterioration, food engineering, food handling, food processing and similar.
International Journal of Food Science maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Metabolite Profiles of the Green Beans of Indonesian Arabica Coffee Varieties
The green beans of 3 Indonesian arabica coffee varieties, namely, ateng, buhun, and sigararutang, were analyzed with 1H NMR-based metabolomics coupled with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. These coffees were cultivated in the same geographical conditions. The PLSDA model successfully classified the green coffee beans based on their varieties. To reveal the characteristic metabolites for each coffee variety, S-plot of two-class OPLSDA models was generated and analyzed. Ateng coffee was characterized with trigonelline, sucrose, 5-CQA, and acetic acid. The characteristic metabolites of buhun coffee were citric acid and malic acid. Meanwhile, the most discriminant compound of sigararutang coffee was quinic acid. HCA analysis revealed the lineage relationship of the 3 coffee varieties. Ateng coffee had closer lineage relationship to sigararutang compared to the buhun coffee. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the coffee samples did not differ widely. values of alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of ateng, sigararutang, and buhun coffees were , , and mg/mL, respectively. Although grown in the same geographical conditions, our results revealed that each coffee variety possessed a unique metabolome clarifying the diversity of Indonesian arabica coffees. This study verified that 1H NMR-based metabolomics is an excellence method for discovering the lineage relationship in the samples with different varieties or cultivars.
Differentiation of Organic Cocoa Beans and Conventional Ones by Using Handheld NIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Classification Techniques
The global market for organic cocoa beans continues to show sturdy growth. A low-cost handheld NIR spectrometer (900-1700 nm) combined with multivariate classification algorithms was used for rapid differentiation analysis of organic cocoa beans’ integrity. In this research, organic and conventionally cultivated cocoa beans were collected from different locations in Ghana and scanned nondestructively with a handheld spectrometer. Different preprocessing treatments were employed. Principal component analysis (PCA) and classification analysis, RF (random forest), KNN (-nearest neighbours), LDA (linear discriminant analysis), and PLS-DA (partial least squares-discriminant analysis) were performed comparatively to build classification models. The performance of the models was evaluated by accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency. Second derivative preprocessing together with PLS-DA algorithm was superior to the rest of the algorithms with a classification accuracy of 100.00% in both the calibration set and prediction set. Second derivative algorithm was found to be the best preprocessing tool. The identification rates for the calibration set and prediction set were 96.15% and 98.08%, respectively, for RF, 91.35% and 92.31% for KNN, and 90.38% and 98.08% for LDA. Generally, the results showed that a handheld NIR spectrometer coupled with an appropriate multivariate algorithm could be used in situ for the differentiation of organic cocoa beans from conventional ones to ensure food integrity along the cocoa bean value chain.
Fermentation Dynamics of Ethiopian Traditional Beer (Tella) as Influenced by Substitution of Gesho (Rhamnus prinoides) with Moringa stenopetala: An Innovation for Nutrition
This study was designed to improve Ethiopian traditional beer (tella) with the substitution of gesho by moringa leaves to enhance micronutrients. Substitution of gesho by moringa from 50 to 100% against the biochemical dynamics and nutritional and sensorial profiles of tella was assessed. Incorporation of moringa suppressed the activity of yeast and favored those of lactic acid bacteria, which shifted the properties of the product from a mild alcoholic nature to a low alcoholic and mild acidic nature, revealing the probiotic potential of tella. Moringa leaves at 100% substitution for gesho resulted in the least yeast count compared to the other formulations. The storage of tella samples over periods of 10 days also strengthened the probiotic nature of tella by drastically reducing the yeast cell counts (from 5 logs to <1). This corresponded to the slow increase in the acidity (0.63 to 0.99%), indicating comparatively higher activity of lactic acid bacteria. The best nutritional contents (dietary minerals) and sensorial acceptance of the product were attained at the 50% substitution of gesho by moringa. The implication of the present study is that ethnic foods and beverages can be innovated to meet the nutritional needs of the community.
Alleviating Chilling Injury in Stored Pomegranate Using a Single Intermittent Warming Cycle: Fatty Acid and Polyamine Modifications
Pomegranate is a perishable superfruit with important human health-promoting phytochemicals. The use of cold storage is inevitable for its long-term preservation. As pomegranate is sensitive to temperatures below 5°C, it is therefore necessary and worthwhile to introduce a postharvest technique that is safe, applicable, and commercially acceptable to maintain the fruit quality under a cold storage condition. The efficacy of intermittent warming (IW) in the form of a single warming period (1 day at 20°C with 70% relative humidity (RH) before returning the treated fruit to storage) during the cold storage of ‘Rabab-e-Neyriz’ pomegranate (70 days at 2 ± 0.5°C and 90 ± 5% RH) was evaluated. To find the best treatment time, warming was performed at 4 temporary interruption points in storage (after 15, 25, 35, or 45 days of storage). For each interruption date, the treated fruit were compared to the controls twice, once immediately after treatment and once at the end of the storage period. It was founded that a single warming period at the right time during cold storage (before irreversible damage occurs) activated multiple mechanisms and physiological responses in pomegranate fruit peel that are significantly responsible for alleviating the severity of chilling damage to this commodity. In other words, warming on the 15th day was the most efficient treatment, resulting in better preservation of unsaturated fatty acids from peroxidation, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and preservation of the unsaturated/saturated fatty acids (UFAs/SFAs) ratio (membrane integrity index) in the peel during storage and lower chilling injury symptoms. Moreover, the content of spermine (Spm) and putrescine (Put) (as important antioxidants acting as membrane safety agents) was significantly increased immediately after treatment, followed by a continuous increase in Spm and a higher level of Put compared to control until the end of storage.
Fatty Acid Contents and Stability of Oyster Nut Oil (Telfairia pedata) Compared to Flaxseed and Sunflower Oil
The selection of healthy fats for consumption is important. Linoleic acid (LA) (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3) are essential polyunsaturated fatty acids required for the maintenance of good health; however, LA derivatives such as arachidonic acid (AA) are associated with the onset of inflammatory diseases, and both are prone to oxidation and deterioration. This study compared the fatty acid contents, peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), and free fatty acids (FFA) of the oyster nut oil with refined sunflower, nonrefined sunflower, and flaxseed oil stored at 27°C for 40 days. Flaxseed oil had significantly high ALA content (59.8%) compared to 0.1-0.5% for oyster nut and sunflower oil brands. The LA content was high in sunflower brands (50.3-52.8%) compared to the oyster nut (48%) and flaxseed oil 14.7%. Oleic acid was lower in oyster nut oil (8.6%) and flaxseed oil 15.8% compared to sunflower brands (35.7-38.2%). As a consequence, oyster nut and flaxseed recorded higher PV of 4.35-2.88 mEq O2/kg and FFA 0.26-0.47% compared to sunflower brands. The p-AV recorded small values which were not significantly different in all samples. Although oyster nut is widely consumed by pregnant and lactating women across Africa, its keeping quality in nonrefined form is low compared to flaxseed and sunflower oil as shown in this study. Hence, the fatty acid contents in oyster nuts should be consumed in other alternative forms such as flour and roasted kernels rather than its oil when in nonrefined form. This study will enable the consumption balance of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids and the keeping quality of oils which is key to health.
Household ICT Utilization and Food Security Nexus in Nigeria
The study examines the nexus between household ICT utilization and food security in Nigeria, which supports goal 2 of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that aims to “end hunger, achieve food security, improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.” The study employs the logit regression to wave 4 of Living Standard Measurement Integrated Survey on Agriculture (LSMS) data for the empirical analysis. Based on the analysis, the study finds that for male household, ICT utilization has a statistically significant and positive nexus with food security. In contrast, for the female households, an insignificant and, however, negative nexus is observed with food security in Nigeria. Furthermore, the findings show that for male household users, a 1 percent increase in male household ICT utilization spurs about 0.68 percent increase in food security in Nigeria. The findings imply that among the male and female household ICT users, the male household ICT utilization is significantly contributes to food security in Nigeria. The study recommends that relevant stakeholders take strategic measures to ensure that the potentials of household ICTs be fully maximized to contribute to food security in the nearest future as confirmed by studies in other regions.