Chemical Formulation and Characterization of Complementary Foods from Blend of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato, Brown Teff, and Dark Red Kidney BeansRead the full article
International Journal of Food Science publishes research in all areas of food science. It is a multidisciplinary journal and includes research on enhancing shelf life, food deterioration, food engineering, food handling, food processing and similar.
International Journal of Food Science maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Evaluating Provitamin A Carotenoids and Polar Metabolite Compositions during the Ripening Stages of the Agung Semeru Banana (Musa paradisiaca L. AAB)
Banana cultivars that are rich in provitamin A carotenoids and other nutrients may offer a potential food source to help alleviate vitamin A deficiencies, particularly in developing countries. The local plantain type banana, Agung Semeru (Musa paradisiaca L.), was investigated, in order to analyse the changes in the compositions of the provitamin A carotenoids and metabolite compounds, including the amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, during the ripening stage as this banana is widely processed for food products in either the unripe, ripe, or overripe stages. The bananas that had reached the desired ripening stages were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, and the results indicated that the total provitamin A carotenoid concentrations ranged between 4748.83 μg/100 g dry weight (dw) and 7330.40 μg/100 g dw, with the highest level of vitamin A activity at μg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/100 g dw. Compared to the Cavendish variety, which is consumed worldwide, the Agung Semeru banana had vitamin A activity that was 40 to 90 times higher, dependent on the stage of ripening. The breakdown of the starch during the ripening stages resulted in an increase of its sugar compounds, such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose, as well as its dominant organic acids, such as malic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, which were observed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) during the ripening stages. The findings of this study show that the Agung Semeru banana is a promising fruit that could be widely produced as a nutritional and energy food resource, due to its high levels of vitamin A activity and sugars.
Antioxidant Potential Overviews of Secondary Metabolites (Polyphenols) in Fruits
The rise in consumption of energy-dense foods has resulted in the displacement of several essential dietary gaps, causing numerous long-lasting diseases, including obesity, stroke, hypertension, and several forms of cancer. Epidemiological studies encourage more fruit consumption to prevent these diseases. The defensive mechanisms provided by these fruits against illness are due to the existence of several antioxidants. Recent studies proved that (poly) phenolic compounds are ideally the core phytochemicals with both functional and health-promoting properties found in the plant’s kingdom, and low intake could result in the risk of certain diseases. Phytonutrients are powerful antioxidants that can modify metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens. The ideal motive of this review is to provide an overview as well as illuminate the polyphenolic merits of fruits in general. Fruits have several merits, including weight maintenance, proper health development, and satiety. There are many analytical methods for determining and measuring the phenolic content of different products. Phenolic compounds are of nutritional interest since they aid in the retardation and inhibition of lipids by acting as scavengers that prevent and protect the proliferation of oxidative chains. Future studies are required to help identify the physiological metabolic activities as well as to improve human health.
Development of Screen-Printed Electrode Biosensor for Rapid Determination of Triglyceride Content in Coconut Milk
The screen-printed electrode biosensor was developed for triglyceride determination in coconut milk. The biosensor was developed by adding lipase, glycerol-3-phosphate (GPO), and glycerol kinase (GK), which is immobilized to a gelatin solution. The concentration of triglyceride is found to be linear to the current produced. The developed screen-printed electrode biosensor showed the optimum response for pH 7.0, 45 mg amount of gelatin, 2.5% glutaraldehyde concentration solution. The developed biosensor was able to find triolein concentrations 0.1 to 1.5 mM. The correlation obtained between these two methods was 93% which was found to be good.
Optimizing Steam Consumption of Mushroom Canning Process by Selecting Higher Temperatures and Shorter Time of Retorting
Increasing energy cost has driven the food canning industries to optimize their energy consumption in order to produce safe and shelf-stable foods efficiently. In the mushroom canning industry, energy efficiency is very critical to improve product (price) competitiveness. This research aimed at demonstrating total steam consumption to achieve the same sterility level (-value) of canned mushroom by using different combinations of times and temperatures of retorting. Agaricus bisporus in brine contained in cans was heat processed in a horizontal static retort. Three different retort temperatures (115, 121, and 130°C) and different operator processing times ranging from 2 to 97 minutes were employed to achieve different levels of -values. Our results showed that at the same level of sterility, steam consumption inversely decreased with the increase of retort temperature. At the same -value of 10 minutes, energy efficiency for up to 72.9% and 58.1% per batch of retorting was achieved by increasing the temperature from 115 to 130°C and 115 to 121°C, respectively. Since steam consumption is a major element of production costs in the canning industry, the selection of higher temperatures and shorter time of retorting will have a positive commercial impact due to the reduction of production costs.
The Impact of Oxygen at Various Stages of Vinification on the Chemical Composition and the Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of White and Red Wines
The purpose of this review was to collect and systematize information on the role and importance of oxygen in winemaking. Both the positive and negative effects of oxygen are presented and discussed throughout the text. The review characterizes the subsequent stages of the wine production process, during which oxygen comes into contact with fruits, must, and finally wine. The impact of oxygen on the growth and metabolism of yeast, on the activity of enzymes, and on the final quality of wine was presented. The discussion of the effect of oxygen presence on the taste, aroma, colour, and stability contains a detailed description of changes of volatile compounds, polyphenols, and other important components of wine that take place in the presence of oxygen in both white and red wines. New techniques based on the use of oxygen to obtain the desired sensory characteristics of wine were also presented.
Micronutrients Potential of Underutilized Vegetables and Their Role in Fighting Hidden Hunger
Background. Innumerable underutilized vegetable (UV) species have been utilized as food and as folklore medicine since time immemorial. Such vegetables have been part and parcel of the food dishes, especially to the ancient rural and periurban dwellers. However, researchers and agricultural scientists have given little or no attention to such vegetables, as to what constitutes their potentials in curbing hidden hunger. To achieve the global Sustainable Development Goals, Tanzania needs to address the issue of food insecurity through the use of not only grains, fruits, and edible insects but also through embracing the UVs. The overall objective of this study was to screen the indigenous vegetables with nutritional and health claims from communities in Kilimanjaro and Morogoro regions. Methods. Quantitative data were obtained by conducting laboratory nutrient and antinutrients composition analyses as per standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. This was carried out to determine the moisture content, micronutrient, and antinutrients composition of the selected UVs. Results. The nutritional and medicinal claims of the selected UVs mentioned during interviews were validated by data obtained from laboratory nutrient and antinutrients composition analyses. Chemical analyses revealed that vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, and C contents ranged from 2.50-6.67, 18.94-182.95, 0.18-0.76, 0.09-0.43, and 46.52-198.08 mg/100 g, respectively. Minerals, on the other hand, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Zn contents ranged from 60.28-421.03, 4.28-21.05, 191.12-1151.91, and 4.28-21.10 mg/100, respectively. Moisture content, oxalates, and phytates contents ranged from 78.59-95.49%, 1.28-3.15, and 1.64-6.18 mg/100 g, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from the study added credence to the selected UVs that they are rich sources of micronutrients and crucial in daily human diet to curb hidden hunger.