International Journal of Food Science / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected?

Table 1

The main studies of the Brilliant Blue dyes effects in vitro and in vivo assays.

Brilliant Blue FCFRef.

In vitro assaysPhosphatases activities modulationPTP1B functionIC50 = 91 µM [21]
YPTP1 functionIC50 > 120 µM
Selective pannexin-1 activity inhibitionIC50 = 0.27 µM[43]
Mitochondrial respiration inhibition[22]

In vivo assaysFood and Drug Administration (FDA) oral absorption limits12 mg/kg/day[22]
Higher gastrointestinal permeability in sepsisSystemic absorption enteral feedings after tracheostomy for obstructive apnea[22]
Systemic absorption chronic renal failure[22]
It leads to death[85]
No evident alterations (even in carcinogenicity studies) in the animal models used[86, 87]
Increase in important hepatic health-indicative enzymesAlanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin[88]

Brilliant Blue R

In vitro assaysBiochemical analyses and protein quantitation in protein-dye binding assays[2326]
Electrophoresis studies
microscopy
[3133]
Polyacrylamide gels in electrophoresis[30]

Brilliant Blue G

In vitro assaysBiochemical analyses and protein quantitation[2326]
The administration of BBG reduced the agglomeration of pathogenic prion protein (PrPres) in vitro[73]
Electrophoresis studies[3133]
Microscopy studies[34, 35]
Polyacrylamide gels in electrophoresis[30]
Bradford assay[36]
Virus-like particles purification[37]
P2X7R noncompetitive antagonistIC50 = 12 nM (rat)[10]
IC50 = 265 nM (human)[10]
P2X7-induced calcium influxpIC50 < 4 (mouse)
pIC50 = 5.09 (rat)
pIC50 < 4 (human)
[96]
P2X7-associated pore formation (Yopro-1 uptake)pIC50 = 6.71 (BALB/c mouse)
pIC50 = 6.34 (C57BL/6 mouse)
pIC50 = 6.24 (rat)
pIC50 = 5.71 (human)
[96]
Pannexin-1 antagonistOocytes-expressing Pannexin-1-induced ionic currentsIC50 ~ 3 µM[97]

In vivo assaysOphthalmic procedures[54, 55]
Visualization of anatomical structures during vitreoretinal surgery[57]
Vitreoretinal surgical procedures[58]
Deleterious consequences of ATP release following brain injuryMicroglial activation in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) [59]
Inhibition of ATP-induced caspase-3 activity
Traumatic spinal cord injuryLocal astrocytes and microglia activity inhibition [60]
Inhibition of neutrophil infiltration
Huntington’s disease (HD)BBG impaired the symptomatology (body weight loss, motor-coordination deficits, and neuronal apoptosis)[61]
Seltzer model of neuropathic painAcute thermal nociception [62]
Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) pain modelModerate effect in inflammatory pain and edema
BBG toxicity assays in Drosophila melanogasterNo impairment on survival of the insect model (LC50 = 38 mM). No neurotoxic effects[63]
Suppression of P2X7R-induced ganglion cell death[64]
Protective neuronal effects upon oxygen-glucose deprivationThe brain damaged area following ischemia was diminished in the animals pretreated with BBG, compared to treatment with vehicle alone[67]
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuryBBG (10 μg) protected against transient global cerebral I/R injury, augmented survival rates, retarded I/R-induced learning and memory deficits, and suppressed I/R-induced neuronal death, DNA cleavage, glial activation and inflammatory cytokine overexpression in the hippocampus[68]
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by posterior cerebral edemaBBG (25 mg/kg) orally administered before the TBI induction diminished the TBI effects[69]
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mdx/mdx mouse)BBG treatment recovered the CD62L in blood lymphocytes and it maintained its ability to migrate to the heart[71]
Treatment with BBG impaired the number of degeneration-regeneration cycles in mdx skeletal muscles in vivo[72]
Agglomeration of pathogenic prion protein (PrPres)Diminished number of PrPres in infected mouse brain after the administration of BBG[73]
Chronic renal dysfunctions renal injury induced by hypertensionBBG suppressed the diuresis pressure threshold in F344 rats[78]
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)The administration of BBG inhibited the progression of ALS[79]

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