Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Food Quality
Volume 2017, Article ID 4067989, 7 pages
Research Article

Seasonally Feed-Related Aflatoxins B1 and M1 Spread in Semiarid Industrial Dairy Herd and Its Deteriorating Impacts on Food and Immunity

1Department of Food Hygiene and Aquaculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad 1793, Iran
2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3Section of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohammad Mohsenzadeh; and Jalil Mehrzad;

Received 28 April 2017; Accepted 28 June 2017; Published 1 October 2017

Academic Editor: Alejandro Hernández

Copyright © 2017 Saideh Mozafari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To comparatively determine the levels of aflatoxin (AF) B1 in feedstuffs and of AFM1 in milk from semiarid industrial cattle farms in northeastern Iran during four seasons and to elucidate the effects of mixed AFB1 and AFM1 on bovine granulocytes, 72 feedstuffs (concentrate, silage, and totally mixed ration (TMR)) and 200 bulk milk samples were simultaneously collected for ELISA-based AFs detection. Isolated blood and milk neutrophils (/treatment) were also preincubated with mix of 10 ng/ml AFB1 and 10 ng/ml AFM1 for 12 h; the impact was assessed on neutrophils functions. AFB1 levels in feedstuffs averaged 28 μg/kg (4–127 μg/kg), with TMR maximal (μg/kg), concentrate (μg/kg), and silage (μg/kg). The levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in feedstuffs and milk averaged , , , and μg/kg and , , , and  ppb μg/kg in winter (maximal), autumn, spring, and summer, respectively. Mix of AFB1 and AFM1 weakened various functions of granulocytes. It adds new reason why during winter semiarid raised food-producing animals show more immune-incompetence.