Improving Storability of “Nanfeng” Mandarins by Treating with Postharvest Hot Water DippingRead the full article
Journal of Food Quality publishes original research on issues of food quality, including the handling of food from a quality and sensory perspective and covers both medical and functional foods.
Journal of Food Quality maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Transfer of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues during Household and Industrial Processing of Ginseng
Ginseng is an important traditional herbal medicine; however, ginseng root may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. Generally, people are more inclined to take the household- or industrial-processed ginseng products, instead of eating them directly. To investigate the intake of pesticides along with ginseng more specifically, we simulated two household processing methods (boiling and brewing) and two industrial processing methods (ethanol refluxing and boiling combined with resin purification) and then calculated the transfer rates of five organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in ginseng. The determination of targeted pesticide residues in ginseng was done by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and the confirmation was done by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS). The transfer rates of five OCPs during boiling, brewing, ethanol refluxing, and boiling combined with resin purification were 3.44%–34.43%, 1.47%–38.12%, 34.81%–57.0%, and 0–2.91%, respectively. The transfer rates of the OCPs in water extraction (boiling and brewing) were relatively low and would not increase significantly along with two hours of boiling. The OCPs were concentrated during the ethanol refluxing procedure because of the high transfer rates of the OCPs and the reduction of the weight of products. The boiling combined with resin purification method removed the OCPs most effectively. Different ginseng processing methods resulted in variable transfer rates of pesticides, as well as a diverse exposure risk of pesticides to humans. Consequently, it is necessary to concern about the transfer rates of pesticide residues during ginseng processing.
Development of an Enriched Polyphenol (Natural Antioxidant) Extract from Orange Juice (Citrus sinensis) by Adsorption on Macroporous Resins
Orange (Citrus sinensis) juice contains a high amount of antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols and vitamins. The aim of this work was to develop an adsorption procedure for the quantitative recovery of polyphenols from fresh orange juice. Different macroporous resins have been selected to evaluate their affinity for phenolic compound in order to purify the antioxidant compounds from the orange juice. The main compounds of orange juice were firstly characterized using an UPLC-UV-HRMS to define the metabolite profile, and subsequently three different types of adsorbent (XAD-2, XAD-4, and XAD-16N) were tested to concentrate these bioactive compounds. The time of contact was selected based on kinetic studies, and subsequently the adsorption and elution conditions were optimized in order to maximize the recovery of phenolic compounds to obtain an extract rich of bioactive compounds. Lastly, antioxidant capacity of the orange juice extract of selected macroporous resin, obtained under optimized conditions, was determined by in vitro antioxidant assays.
Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Controlled Atmosphere on Ethylene Synthesis and Quality Attributes of Avocado cvs. Edranol and Fuerte
Avocado production worldwide relies on several varieties, with “Hass” being the most commercialized; however, the available genotypes include a number of green-skin varieties with important roles in several countries. Because many technologies have already been developed in “Hass” avocado, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application during long-term storage of “Edranol” and “Fuerte” avocados. Fruits of both varieties were harvested at two maturity stages: an early harvest close to 20–23% dry matter (DM) content and another after two months, with 22% and 32% DM content for Edranol and Fuerte, respectively. After harvest, the fruit was stored under the following conditions: (i) regular air storage (RA), (ii) CA with 4% O2 and 6% CO2, and (iii) 1-MCP applied at 300 ppm. Avocados were stored at 5°C and 85% relative humidity. Physiological and quality evaluations were performed immediately after 30 and 50 days; afterwards, the avocados were maintained at 20°C (shelf life) until they reached the ready-to-eat stage. Ethylene synthesis was assessed by measuring the transcript accumulation of the ACO and ACS genes. The two varieties showed distinct respiration and ethylene production rates during ripening, and fruit stored under CA or after application of 1-MCP showed lower respiration rates than fruit stored under RA, with the lowest rate in 1-MCP-treated avocados. ACS and ACO transcript levels were also lower under both conditions. CA and 1-MCP were very effective tools for extending storage life mainly by reducing the fruit softening rate and the incidence of pulp disorders in both varieties, and interestingly, these techniques did not severely affect the days to reach the ready-to-eat stage. Therefore, the use of CA and 1-MCP technologies in “Fuerte” and “Edranol” seems to be suitable for maintaining quality through 50 days of storage.
Postharvest Application of Aloe vera Gel-Based Edible Coating to Improve the Quality and Storage Stability of Fresh-Cut Papaya
Ready-to-eat products are damaged by various factors, including exposure to O2 and CO2, extreme temperatures, and rapid decay, due to trauma during processing. The use of natural antimicrobial agents and antioxidants might extend the shelf-life of the fruits. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of four different antibrowning and gelling agents added into the Aloe vera gel-based edible coatings and applied to fresh-cut papaya. EC1 treatment consists of Aloe vera gel (30% v/v), EC2 contains CaCl2 (5% v/v), EC3 contains K carrageenan (0.5% v/v), and EC4 contains sodium alginate (1.5% v/v) and K carrageenan (0.5% v/v). The fruits treated with EC2 showed the best results while maintaining high values in terms of firmness (that differ from the control of 42.5%), soluble solid content (that differ from the control of 14.6%), and titratable acidity (that differ from the control of 49%). Hence, the addition of CaCl2 also reduces the ripening rate and loss of color without altering the product’s sensory qualities. EC3 and EC4 treatments have provided an oxygen barrier and reduced respiratory rate, increasing the firmness retention and keeping a high value thanks to K carrageenan and sodium alginate.
Detection, Risk Assessment, and Survey of Four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Markers in Infant Formula Powder
A gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method was developed to assess the infant exposure assessment from four important polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) markers in infant formula powder: benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene (collectively referred to as PAH4). The developed method required the addition of an isotopically labeled internal standard, sample extraction under alkali conditions, a saponification step, and a solid-phase extraction purification step. In a controlled spike test, the average recovery rates of PAH4 were 77.3% to 111.8% and the relative standard deviations were 4.8% to 14.2% (n = 6). The quantitative limit (LOQ) and detection limit (LOD) of the method were 0.5 and 0.1 μg·kg−1, respectively. The PAH4 content was analyzed in 30 commercially available infant formula powders. The PAH4 content was found to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.87 μg·kg−1. Combined with the daily intake of infant milk powder in China, the average and maximum daily exposure of BaP for stage-1 infants in China are 0.45 ng/kg.bw.d−1 and 1.9 ng/kg.bw.d−1 and the PAH4 values are 8.6 ng/kg.bw.d−1 and 18.6 ng/kg.bw.d−1, respectively. The PAH4 content in the tested infant formula powders sold in the China were sufficiently low, and all of the tested products were safe for consumption.
Microbial Profile of Fresh Beef Sold in the Markets of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon, and Antiadhesive Activity of a Biosurfactant against Selected Bacterial Pathogens
Owing to its composition, meat is recognized as one of the best media for microbial growth leading to meat spoilage and food-borne illness. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to surfaces where meat is deposited during selling is a nonnegligible cause of meat contamination. This work was performed to assess the microbial profile of fresh beef sold in the markets of Ngaoundéré town and evaluate the antiadhesive activity of a biosurfactant derived from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans N2 against selected pathogenic strains isolated in fresh beef. All fresh beef samples analysed were contaminated with both pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms at levels higher than the microbiological criteria set by the European Commission. A total of 151 strains belonging to 12 species (Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli 1, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Candida sp.) were isolated and identified. A specific relationship between the microbial diversity of fresh beef and the sampling sites was observed. Biosurfactant displayed antiadhesive activity against all the tested strains and the complete inhibition (100%) of Bacillus sp. BC1, S. aureus STP1, and S. xylosus STP2 was noticed at biosurfactant concentration of 10 mg/mL. This study indicates the microbial diversity of fresh beef sold in Ngaoundéré markets and suggests the potential use of biosurfactant as an antiadhesive agent in the meat industry.