The Preparation and Identification of Characteristic Flavour Compounds of Maillard Reaction Products of Protein Hydrolysate from Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) BoneRead the full article
Journal of Food Quality publishes original research on issues of food quality, including the handling of food from a quality and sensory perspective and covers both medical and functional foods.
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Tunisian Pistachio Hull Extracts: Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Foodborne Pathogen Inhibition
The present study aimed to discriminate pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls belonging to three different Tunisian geographical origins and extracted separately by hexane, acetone, acetonitrile, and water in terms of phytochemicals and antioxidant and antibacterial activities using multivariate analysis. Significant differences () in the phytochemical content, antioxidant, and antifoodborne bacterial activities were detected among the pistachio hulls populations. Pearson correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and heat map were used to distinguish the relationship between the different regions on the basis of the biological activities. It was found that the twelve (4 extracts × 3 geographical sources) pistachio hulls extracts could be classified geographically into four distinct groups. To explore the mode of action of the aqueous pistachio hull extract against L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, polymyxin acriflavine lithium chloride ceftazidime aesculin mannitol (PALCAM) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) broth media were artificially contaminated at 104 CFU/mL. Using linear and general linear models, aqueous pistachio hull extract was demonstrated to control the two dominant food-borne pathogens by suppressing the bacterial growth.
Metabolomic Biomarkers Differentiate Soy Sauce Freshness under Conditions of Accelerated Storage
Naturally fermented soy sauce is one of the few globally valued food condiments. It is complex in its substrate, manufacturing processes, and chemical profile of salts and organic compounds, resulting from spontaneous, enzymatic and biochemical reactions. The overall chemical character of soy sauce has a few rivals relative to its chemical and bioactive complexity. Resulting from this complexity are unique sensory attributes contributing to the characteristic soy sauce flavor as well as potentiating other sensory sensations. Soy sauce is susceptible to deterioration after bottling during storage. This work examined soy sauces over an eight-month period using descriptive sensory methods and the discovery of metabolomic biomarkers with high resolution mass spectrometry, wherein samples were derivatized to enable volatility and identification of polar analytes. While several thousand metabolites were detected, only organic acids, amino acids, and various glycosylated metabolites were statistically defensible biomarkers of storage time. The relationships between sensory and metabolomic data were assessed using Kendall rank-based correlations to generate Kendall Tau correlation coefficients. A second approach filtered the data based on correlation significance and grouped molecules based on hierarchical clustering. Mass spectrometry analyses discovered several thousand unique analyte peaks with relevant changes denoted as significant relative to the fresh samples using volcano depictions of values versus changes in compound abundances. We present a metabolomic approach for the analysis of complex food systems capable of differentiating a quantifiable extrinsic variable, which is, in this case, storage time with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. We further demonstrate that changes in soy sauce resulting from storage are characterized by sensory decreases in fruity/grape and nutty/sesame aroma and increases in methional/potato aroma and astringent attributes with concomitant changes in the concentrations of several key biomarkers.
Short-Term Forecasting of Agriculture Commodities in Context of Indian Market for Sustainable Agriculture by Using the Artificial Neural Network
Prediction of well-grounded market information, particularly short-term forecast of prices of agricultural commodities, is the essential requirement for the sustainable development of the farming community. Such predictions are mostly performed with the help of time series models. In this study, the soft computing method is used for short-term forecasting of agriculture commodity price based on time series data using the artificial neural network (ANN). The time series data for sunflower seed and soybean seed are considered as the agriculture commodities. The soybean seed time series data were collected for the period of five years (Jan 2014–Dec 2018), for Akola district market, Maharashtra, India. The sunflower time series data were collected for the period of six years (Jan 2011–Dec 2016), for Kadari district market, Andhra Pradesh, India. The dataset is available at the Indian government website taken from the website www.data.gov.in. For forecasting, the ANN model is used on the abovementioned datasets. The performance of the model is compared with the result of the traditional ARIMA model. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square percentage error (RMSPE) are considered as the performance parameters for the forecasting model. It is observed that the ANN is a better forecasting model than the ARIMA model by considering the two forecasting performance parameters MAPE and RMSPE.
Evaluating the Effects of MKAVCFSL Derived from Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) Flesh on Antioxidant Activity in Caco-2 Cells In Vitro
The effect of an antioxidative peptide Met-Lys-Ala-Val-Cys-Phe-Ser-Leu (MKAVCFSL) on oxidative stress in Caco-2 cell lines was investigated. Caco-2 cells exposed to excess oxidative stress could be restored when pretreated with the peptide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) within the cells could be scavenged by MKAVCFSL. The peptide could also enhance the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), while catalase (CAT) activity did not show a significant difference between treatment and control samples. Meanwhile, it was observed that peptide treatment increased the concentration of glutathione (GSH). Yet the content of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) was hardly affected. The stability of MKAVCFSL was also assessed and an intact peptide was observed after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Part of the peptide was hydrolyzed into fragments including MKA, FSL, AVCFSL, and MKAVCF. This study demonstrated that MKAVCFSL derived from bighead carp hydrolysates could ameliorate oxidative stress to protect the Caco-2 cells.
Models for Predicting Quality of Solar-Dried Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during Storage Based on Protein Oxidation
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between protein oxidation and quality and to study the changes in various indexes of solar-dried shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored at 37°C and 20°C through vacuum packing and vacuum packaging with antipressure sterilization. The results showed that ΔE as well as TVB-N and carbonyl contents increased, whereas moisture and free thiol (SH) contents decreased with time. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and scanning electron microscopy revealed protein degradation and damage of shrimp muscle microstructure during storage. A quality prediction model based on protein oxidation was established according to Arrhenius equation. Verification of shrimp quality prediction models revealed that the relative errors of the models based on SH and carbonyl contents were below 10%, indicating that these protein oxidation parameters can be used for reliable estimation of quality changes in dried shrimp during storage.
The Effect of Aromatherapy with Lavender Oil on the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lavender oil, which has been used in complementary medicine as an aromatherapeutic, on the health-related quality of life in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and to determine the main volatile compounds of lavender oil with healing effects. Forty-two patients aged 18 years and over who were diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology 2010 diagnostic criteria and used lavender oil as an aromatherapeutic by applying it on the wrist or via inhalation for four weeks were included in this study. The Short-Form (SF)-36 Quality of Life Scale was administered to the patients at baseline and after four weeks of lavender oil treatment to determine whether there was any change in their quality of life. The averages and correlation levels between the scores were calculated with the paired-sample t-test taking < 0.05 as the statistical significance limit. In addition, the chromatographic analysis of lavender oil was performed with the combined headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. When the quality of life scores were evaluated at baseline and after four weeks of lavender oil treatment, improvements were detected in all the subscales of SF-36 at the end of the study. It was found that all the subscale scores, except for general health, were statistically significantly higher compared to the baseline scores ( < 0.05). The major volatile compounds detected in lavender oil were linalool (29.33%) and linalyl acetate (27.69%). The remaining main compounds were terpinolene, cis-ocimene, eucalyptol, and lavandulol in the order of frequency, which is consistent with the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effect of lavender oil aromatherapy on patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia, and our results support that lavender oil aromatherapy significantly improves the quality of life in these patients. However, further comprehensive studies are needed to confirm our findings.