Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Canthaxanthin- and α-Tocopherol-Loaded Liposomes on Growth and Muscle Pigmentation of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)Read the full article
Journal of Food Quality publishes original research on issues of food quality, including the handling of food from a quality and sensory perspective and covers both medical and functional foods.
Journal of Food Quality maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Proximate Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Fish Sausages Fortified with Bee Bread Extract
Bee bread is rich in phenolic compounds and recently has gained attention as a food additive, which provides an alternative use to synthetic preservatives. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the proximate composition and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of fish sausages fortified with Heterotrigona itama bee bread ethanolic (BBE) extract at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75% concentrations. Incorporation of BBE in fish sausages significantly increased the carbohydrate level and lowered the moisture content. The highest phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in fish sausages with 0.75% BBE with 23.46 ± 1.60 mg GAE/g sample and 8.05 ± 0.24 mg rutin/g sample, respectively. The antioxidant activity revealed the highest DPPH scavenging activity for 0.75% BBE fish sausage compared to synthetic additive BHT. After 28 days of frozen storage, lipid oxidation activity of fish sausages with 0.75% BBE had lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value than the negative control, but similar () to BHT. The phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were significantly reduced () after 28 days of storage. Based on the antibacterial activity, BBE was able to inhibit tested foodborne pathogens, and the addition of BBE in fish sausage showed total plate count below 6 log10 CFU/g within 6 days of frozen storage. This research demonstrated the BBE efficiency as a natural antioxidant with antibacterial properties in fish sausages.
Benzothiazole (BTH) Induced Resistance of Navel Orange Fruit and Maintained Fruit Quality during Storage
Current research aimed at studying the effect of benzothiazole (BTH) on the fruit quality and resistance against Penicillium italicum (P. italicum). Recently, a synthetically prepared novel BTH was introduced that elicits the induction of resistance against various diseases of fruits. However, little was reported on the effect of BTH on the disease resistance and fruit quality of postharvest navel orange fruit. In this study, 50 mg·L−1 BTH significantly reduced the decay rate of fruits during 36 days of storage at 20 ± 0.5°C (). BTH markedly inhibited the weight loss rate in fruits () and effectively maintained higher soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acid (TA), and vitamin C (VC) content compared with control navel orange fruits. Further, BTH significantly suppressed the increase of disease incidence and lesion area of orange fruits challenged with P. italicum (). BTH treatment significantly enhanced antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and reducing power), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly increased, while the activity of catalase (CAT) was opposite to the former (). The activities of β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and chalcone isomerase (CHT) were significantly higher in BTH-treated navel orange fruits (). Our results suggested that BTH treatment may be a promising treatment for maintaining the quality and inhibiting blue mold of postharvest navel orange in the future.
Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Negative Bacterial Species from Pasteurized Dairy Products: Potential Risk to Consumer Health
Pathogenic bacterial contaminants of dairy products cause economic and human life losses if not destroyed by pasteurization. Gram-negative bacteria are among such major contaminants. Contamination persists because of faulty pasteurization or occurs during postpasteurization processing. Many factors, including presence of asymptomatic healthy carriers, existence of broad-range host pathogens, and resistance of pathogens to ordinary disinfectants, hamper the control of such pathogens. Here, samples of pasteurized dairy products were subjected to enrichment/selective cultures to test for possible Salmonella contamination, followed by growth on/in various media to test for phenotypic properties and some virulence characteristics of isolates (catalase, urease, oxidase, gelatinase, etc.). Isolates were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic tests for identification and resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics, including disk diffusion and for β-lactamase production. All milk samples harbored Gram-negative bacilli, which constitute a public health hazard. All of the isolates exhibited intermediate-level or higher resistance to ≥2 clinically relevant antibiotics, while some were susceptible. None tested positive for phenotypic gelatin hydrolysis but exhibited alpha- or beta-hemolysis. Sequence alignments of 16S rRNA gene partial sequences suggested up to 99% sequence similarities to subspecies of Salmonella enterica. Most isolates were also β-lactamase producers, especially blaTEM. In conclusion, high contamination rates were found in all Ethiopian pasteurized milk samples. The reasons for this burden of contamination need to be elucidated for meaningful and targeted control. Larger studies are needed, specifically to reveal points of entry of potential pathogens into dairy products. Information from this work will help to address and control previously unrecognized health hazards associated with consumption of pasteurized dairy products.
The Scourge of Aflatoxins in Kenya: A 60-Year Review (1960 to 2020)
Aflatoxins are endemic in Kenya. The 2004 outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in the country was one of the unprecedented epidemics of human aflatoxin poisoning recorded in mycotoxin history. In this study, an elaborate review was performed to synthesize Kenya’s major findings in relation to aflatoxins, their prevalence, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, prevention, and management in various matrices. Data retrieved indicate that the toxins are primarily biosynthesized by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, with the eastern part of the country reportedly more aflatoxin-prone. Aflatoxins have been reported in maize and maize products (Busaa, chan’gaa, githeri, irio, muthokoi, uji, and ugali), peanuts and its products, rice, cassava, sorghum, millet, yams, beers, dried fish, animal feeds, dairy and herbal products, and sometimes in tandem with other mycotoxins. The highest total aflatoxin concentration of 58,000 μg/kg has been reported in maize. At least 500 acute human illnesses and 200 deaths due to aflatoxins have been reported. The causes and prevalence of aflatoxins have been grossly ascribed to poor agronomic practices, low education levels, and inadequate statutory regulation and sensitization. Low diet diversity has aggravated exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya because maize as a dietetic staple is aflatoxin-prone. Detection and surveillance are only barely adequate, though some exposure assessments have been conducted. There is a need to widen diet diversity as a measure of reducing exposure due to consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods.
Citral Delays Postharvest Senescence of Kiwifruit by Enhancing Antioxidant Capacity under Cold Storage
Citral is an aliphatic aldehyde extracted from citrus essential oil. The aim of the study was to examine how citral treatment affects the weight loss, firmness, respiration, and ripening index, as well as the antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. ‘Jinkui’). The citral treatment was seen to reduce the weight loss, softening, and fruit respiration compared to control fruits. Citral treatment also had an inhibitory effect on ripening index, O2•− production rate, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. The degradations of ascorbic acid (AsA) content, total flavonoids content (TFC), and total phenolics content (TPC) were also suppressed by citral. In contrast, citral treatment induces the activation of antioxidant enzyme system such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT). Collectively, the results indicated that citral treatment delays postharvest senescence and prolongs storage life by enhancing antioxidant capacity in harvested kiwifruits. These findings suggest that citral has the potential to be used as a promising natural preservative for the extension of postharvest quality in harvested kiwifruit.
Chemistry, Safety, and Challenges of the Use of Organic Acids and Their Derivative Salts in Meat Preservation
Meat industries are constantly facing new waves of changes in the consumer’s nutritional trends, food safety, and quality requirements and legislations leading to an increase in interest for meat biopreservation to respond to all of these modern socioeconomic demands. Hence, to replace synthetic and/or expensive additives, new technologies in preserving meat products from microbial contamination have been established. In this context, organic acids and their salts have been considered as the most popular examples of preservatives that offer several advantages to be applied in meat industry. Here, characteristics of organic acids/salts commonly used in meat preservation were described based on the published literature. Moreover, after outlining the challenges and advantages of their use in meat industry, their current applications as meat preservatives on various meat type matrices such as beef, pork, sheep, and poultry were quite exposed based on previous and recent research works. Then, different application types were highlighted. Besides, some potent synergistic approaches based on several combinations of organic acids/salts with different existing preservative techniques are reported with an emphasised discussion of their application as possible solution tools to mainly overcome some problems linked to organic acids/salts when used solely, thus contributing to ensure the overall safety and improve the quality of meats. Finally, despite their usefulness in meat preservation, organic acids/salts may possess detrimental traits. In this context, a detailed discussion on their limits of use in meat products was provided in the last section of this paper.