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Journal of Food Quality
Volume 2017, Article ID 5960743, 13 pages
Research Article

The Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of Quality Attributes of Parboiled Rice Using a Response Surface Method

1College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210031, China
2College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
3Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4Department of Structure and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
5Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210014, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Chen Kunjie; nc.ude.uajn@nehceijnuk

Received 22 June 2017; Revised 4 September 2017; Accepted 19 September 2017; Published 20 November 2017

Academic Editor: Egidio De Benedetto

Copyright © 2017 Khurram Yousaf et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The response surface methodology was used to optimize the hydrothermal processing conditions based on the rice quality parameters of the Rong Youhua Zhan rice variety (Indica). The effect of soaking temperature (29.77, 40, 55, 70, and 80.23°C), soaking time (67.55, 90, 120, 150, and 170.45 min), and steaming time (1.59, 5, 10, 15, and 18.41 min), each tested at five levels, on percentage of head rice yield (HRY), hardness, cooking time, lightness, and color were determined, with values of 0.96, 0.94, 0.90, 0.88, and 0.94, respectively. HRY, hardness, cooking time, and color increased with process severity while lightness decreased, although HRY decreased after reaching a maximum. The predicted optimum soaking temperature, soaking time, and steaming time were 69.88°C, 150 min, and 6.73 min, respectively, and the predicted HRY, hardness, cooking time, lightness, and color under these conditions were 73.43%, 29.95 N, 32.14 min, 83.03 min, and 12.24 min, respectively, with a composite desirability of 0.9658. The parboiling industry could use the findings of the current study to obtain the desired quality of parboiled rice. This manuscript will be helpful for researchers working on commercializing parboiled rice processes in China as well as in other countries.