Journal of Food Quality / 2017 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

The Effect of Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) Addition on Quality and Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

Table 3

Characteristics of obtained breads.

ParameterSample
CS2CS4CS6CS8

Water absorption of flour (%)59.8 ± 0.2259.6 ± 0.1559.7 ± 0.1059.5 ± 0.1359.2 ± 0.31

Bread yield [%]140.18 ± 0.59140.72 ± 0.47138.83 ± 0.54138.33 ± 0.56137.62 ± 0.56
Baking loss [%]9.10 ±0.329.50 ± 0.419.15 ± 0.297.72 ± 0.367.84 ± 0.36
Volume [g/]372.1 ± 2.6361.1 ± 6.0340.8 ± 5.6323.8 ± 4.7316.2 + 6.3
Crumb porosity [/100 ]73.3 ± 0.474.3 ± 0.674.3 ± 0.574.3 ± 0.673.9 ± 0.5
Crumb color
L75.7 ± 0.7669.75 ± 0.4769.45 ± 1.5668.19 ± 0.3867.31 ± 0.62
a−0.69 ± 0.05−0.51 ± 0.14−0.35 ±0.29−0.40 ±0.42−0.37 ± 0.34
b13.58 ± 0.4912.53 ± 0.4811.84 ± 0.1911.57 ± 0.3611.01 ± 0.34
ΔE-6.0± 0.226.5± 0.377.8± 0.438.73 ± 0.45
TPA
 Hardness [N]12.99 ± 0.6412.77 ± 0.4411.15 ± 0.5910.92 ± 0.4911.25 ± 0.49
 Springiness [-]0.94 ± 0.010.94 ± 0.010.95 ± 0.010.95 ± 0.010.94 ± 0.01
 Cohesiveness [-]0.71 ± 0.050.66 ± 0.030.71 ± 0.050.71 ± 0.010.69 ± 0.01
 Gumminess [N]9.07 ± 0.738.78 ± 0.357.86 ± 0.097.80 ± 0.147.82 ± 0.28
 Chewiness [N × mm]9.04 ± 0.247.83 ± 0.677.45 ± 0.097.46 ± 0.137.31 ± 0.57
Water content [%]43.83 ± 0.5143.59 ± 0.3343.48 ± 0.1943.79 ± 0.1643.52 ± 0.16
Total protein content [%]10.82 ± 0.0711.20 ± 0.0111.37 ± 0.0311.77 ± 0.0711.96 ± 0.05
Total ash content [%]0.95 ± 0.111.10 ± 0.021.17 ± 0.011.27 ± 0.051.34 ± 0.02
Total dietary fiber content [%]3.58 ± 0.115.81 ± 0.156.03 ± 0.156.63 ± 0.137.19± 0.17
Total fat content [%]1.12 ± 0.051.54 ± 0.021.94 ± 0.032.34 ± 0.032.53 ± 0.04
The fatty acid profile [%]
 Palmitic acid15.70 ± 0.4013.46 ± 0.4213.14 ± 0.2312.33 ± 0.3512.08 ± 0.12
 Stearic acid1.67 ± 0.101.69 ± 0.281.76 ± 0.161.79 ± 0.031.82 ± 0.16
 Oleic acid12.02 ± 0.1713.19 ± 0.1014.50 ± 0.3415.82 ± 0.3816.31 ± 0.25
 Linoleic acid67.98 ± 0.3862.89 ± 0.5961.03 ± 0.6159.36 ± 0.7658.9 ± 0.76
α-Linolenic acid2.64 ± 0.098.77 ± 0.389.57 ± 0.3810.69 ± 0.8711.52 ± 0.48
Sensory evaluation
 Appearance4.4 ± 0.54.3 ± 0.34.3 ± 0.24.2 ± 0.33.8± 0.3
 Taste4.3 ± 0.24.2 ± 0.54.3 ± 0.34.4 ± 0.24.1± 0.3
 Smell4.5 ± 0.24.5 ± 0.14.6 ± 0.24.5 ± 0.34.0± 0.3
 Color4.5 ± 0.14.3 ± 0.24.3 ± 0.14.0 ± 0.43.8± 0.3
 Texture4.3 ± 0.24.3 ± 0.14.5 ± 0.24.5 ± 0.33.7± 0.4
 Overall4.1 ± 0.14.2 ± 0.24.2 ± 0.34.0 ± 0.23.7± 0.3
TPC [mg GAE/g d.m.]0.44 ± 0.020.49 ± 0.030.61 ± 0.030.75 ± 0.020.82 ± 0.04
ABTS [ (mg d.m./ml)]959.1 ± 43.6508.8 ± 28.7415.6 ± 21.4296.1 ± 15.3186.4 ± 10.3

, control bread, CS2, CS4, CS6, and CS8, bread with 2, 4, 6, and 8% of chia seeds, respectively; the values are expressed as mean ± SD; means with different letter superscript are significantly different .

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.