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Journal of Food Quality
Volume 2018, Article ID 3967961, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3967961
Research Article

A Combined System of Ground Well and Composted Olive Cake for Hot Water Production at Olive Mills

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
2Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
3Department of Chemical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohamad I. Al-Widyan; oj.ude.tsuj@naydiw

Received 5 February 2018; Accepted 11 April 2018; Published 7 June 2018

Academic Editor: Alessandro Attanzio

Copyright © 2018 Mohamad I. Al-Widyan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Building a system that consists of a combination of geothermal component (water well (pit)) and heat recovery from aerobic biological fermentation of olive cake for hot water production at an olive mill is examined in this work. Hot water is essential for mill operation and constitutes a main operational cost, and in many countries, including Jordan, it is normally produced using diesel fuel. In this process, treated and untreated olive cake was characterized. Results show that olive cake is rich in crude fiber and NFE, contains moderate amounts of crude protein and fat, and a good amount of ash. The as-received moisture content ranged from 33.3 to 35.6%, while water activity was between 0.93 and 0.96. The total counts, thermophilic bacteria, and the total mold count of fermentation ranged, respectively, from 2.1 × 108 to 2.4 × 108, 1.7 × 104 to 1.9 × 104, and 1.5 × 102 to 1.7 × 102. The temperature results showed that the well and the covered tank led to a rise in water temperature before entering the boiler in the range of 7 to 13°C. The system effected significant raises in water temperature entering the boiler ranging from 19°C up to 25°C, which holds a promising potential for the system to satisfy much of the mills needs at this range of temperature before entering the boiler provided a large enough pile (pile scale up) is used to handle larger flow rates. The exhausted cake may well be utilized as a soil organic fertilizer.