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Journal of Food Quality
Volume 2019, Article ID 1614502, 7 pages
Research Article

Detection of Total Aflatoxins in Groundnut and Soybean Samples in Yemen Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

1Center of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
2Yemen Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control Organization, Sana’a, Yemen
3Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen

Correspondence should be addressed to Safwan Ahmed Abdullah Murshed; moc.oohay@1001_nawfas

Received 6 December 2018; Revised 1 April 2019; Accepted 23 May 2019; Published 10 June 2019

Academic Editor: Márcio Carocho

Copyright © 2019 Safwan Ahmed Abdullah Murshed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, especially hepatocellular carcinoma effect. This work aimed to investigate the presence of aflatoxins in groundnuts and soybeans that are consumed in Yemen. The samples were collected from three different regions in Yemen (Sana’a, al-Hodeida, and Aden), and they were divided into two groups. The concentration of total aflatoxins was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were determined in 89 groundnut and 65 soybean samples. The results showed that 85.39% (76/89) of groundnut and 72.3% (45/65) of soybean samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. In addition, in 49.44% and 27.6% of the groundnut and soybean samples, total aflatoxins exceed the acceptable level of European Commission (4 μg/kg), while in only 6.2% of soybean samples and 22.47% of groundnut samples, total aflatoxins were beyond the maximum limit of FDA/Yemen standards (20 μg/kg). The results showed that the aflatoxin contamination in the groundnut and soybean samples may be considered a significant risk for public health. The present study is the first to report the data on the presence of aflatoxins in groundnut and soybean samples in Yemen.