Table 1: Concentration and corresponding apparent viscosity of each hydrocolloid solution before injected to meat pieces.

HydrocolloidConcentration (% w/v)Apparent viscosity (Pa·s)

Water0.23 ± 0.08e

Aga0.131.03 ± 0.15c
0.308.04 ± 075a

Xan0.300.68 ± 0.03d
0.451.12 ± 0.08c

Car0.201.08 ± 0.20c
0.302.96 ± 0.69b

Gel0.300.31 ± 003e
1.401.09 ± 0.19c

Note. Values are the average of three independent experiments. Different superscripts indicate significant differences ().