Effect of BMS on fatty acid β-oxidation and glucose intake. (a) mRNA expressions of AMPK, ACC2, CPT1, GLUT4, and PGC-1α of HepG2-IR cells; (b) potential pathways of BMS involved in the glucose and lipid metabolism. Values are expressed as means ± SE. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Different superscripts were considered significantly different. Met: metformin; BMS: bitter melon saponins.