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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 512978, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/512978
Research Article

Long Course Hyperbaric Oxygen Stimulates Neurogenesis and Attenuates Inflammation after Ischemic Stroke

1Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan
2Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3Department of Surgery, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
4Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan
5Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan

Received 6 November 2012; Revised 13 January 2013; Accepted 15 January 2013

Academic Editor: I-Ming Jou

Copyright © 2013 Ying-Sheng Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Several studies have provided evidence with regard to the neuroprotection benefits of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in cases of stroke, and HBO also promotes bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) proliferation and mobilization. This study investigates the influence of HBO therapy on the migration of BMSCs, neurogenesis, gliosis, and inflammation after stroke. Rats that sustained transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were treated with HBO three weeks or two days. The results were examined using a behavior test (modified neurological severity score, mNSS) and immunostaining to evaluate the effects of HBO therapy on migration of BMSCs, neurogenesis, and gliosis, and expression of neurotrophic factors was also evaluated. There was a lower mNSS score in the three-week HBO group when compared with the two-day HBO group. Mobilization of BMSCs to an ischemic area was more improved in long course HBO treatments, suggesting the duration of therapy is crucial for promoting the homing of BMSCs to ischemic brain by HBO therapies. HBO also can stimulate expression of trophic factors and improve neurogenesis and gliosis. These effects may help in neuronal repair after ischemic stroke, and increasing the course of HBO therapy might enhance therapeutic effects on ischemic stroke.