The Scientific World Journal

The Scientific World Journal / 2013 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2013 |Article ID 219815 | 33 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/219815

Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

Academic Editor: U. Feller
Received01 Aug 2013
Accepted21 Aug 2013
Published15 Dec 2013

Abstract

Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species.

1. Introduction

The genus Pistacia belongs to the Anacardiaceae, a cosmopolitan family that comprise about 70 genera and over 600 species. The species of the genus Pistacia are evergreen or deciduous resin-bearing shrubs and trees which are characterized as xerophytic trees and growing to 8–10 m tall. Pistacia lentiscus L., P. atlantica Desf., P. terebinthus L., P. vera L., and P. khinjuk Stocks. are distributed from the Mediterranean basin to central Asia [1, 2]. Three Pistacia species naturally occur in Iran: P. vera L., P. khinjuk Stocks., and P. atlantica Desf.; P. atlantica has three subspecies or varieties which have been described as cabulica, kurdica, and mutica [3]. P. vera is the only species of the genus cultivated commercially, and the rest of the species are mostly used as rootstocks for P. vera [1, 2].

Different parts of Pistacia species have been investigated for various pharmacological activities. Most of the papers are devoted to the resin of P. lentiscus that is known as mastic. In addition to their therapeutic effects, Pistacia species are used in food industry, for example, consumption of pistachio (P. vera) nut as food additive [4], P. terebinthus fruit as snack food or in making coffee-like drink [5, 6], and the anthocyanin composition of P. lentiscus fruit as food colorants [7].

Chemical studies on Pistacia genus have led to discovering diverse secondary metabolites in addition to high level of vitamins and minerals.

Our review presents a comprehensive report on phytochemical aspects, pharmacological activities, and toxicity of the genus Pistacia by focusing on the data reported since the year 2000 via papers on databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science.

2. Traditional Uses

Traditional uses, plant part used, and pharmacological activities of Pistacia lentiscus, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. vera, and P. khinjuk from different regions are listed in Table 1.


SpeciesRegionsPlant part(s) usedTraditional uses and ethnobotanical reportsReference(s)

Pistacia lentiscus Algeria Leaf Appetizer and astringent [75]
Greece Resin Stomach ache, dyspepsia, stomach ulcer,
intestinal disorders, hepatic inflammation, tooth disease, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and diuretic
[33, 128, 129]
Aerial partStimulant, diuretic, hypertension, kidney stones, jaundice, cough, sore throat, eczema, and stomach ache[88]
Iraq Resin Abdominal pain [130]
Iran Resin Gum tissue strengthener, breath deodorizer, brain and liver tonic, and gastrointestinal ailments[11, 100, 102]
Italy Leaf Toothache, mycosis, herpes, abdominal and intestinal pain, rheumatism, antiseptic, cicatrizant, emollient, expectorant, and astringent[131, 132]
Jordan LeafJaundice [121, 133]
Resin Heart burn and stomach ache
Morocco Leaf Digestive disease, evil eye[134]
Portugal Leaf, barkGastric analgesic [135]
Root Antiseptic and antiodontalgic [135]
Seeds Antirheumatic[135]
Stem Buccal antiseptic [135]
Spain Aerial partHypertension [136]
FruitInfluenza[71]
LeafDermatophytosis in cows[72]
Tender budWarts[73]
TunisiaFruit Edible usage, condiment, scabies,
Rheumatism, and antidiarrheal
[60]
TurkeyleafEczema, diarrhea, throat infections, paralysis, kidney stones, Jaundice, asthma, stomach ache, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and stimulant[96]

Pistacia atlantica AlgeriaFruit Stomach ache, cough, stress, tonic, and
antidiarrheal
[20, 63]
Greek Fruit Mouth flavouring, tanning, and as fodder [31]
IranAerial partVeterinary [31]
Fruit Antidiarrheal [11]
Resin Peptic ulcer, mouth freshener, antiseptic, gum tissue strengthener, as chewing gum, appetizer, phlegm dissolver, astringent, laxative, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, carminative, visceral inflammation, scabies, stomach, liver and kidneys tonic, gastrointestinal disorders, and motion sickness[9]
Resin, barkJoint pains, toothache, wound healing[137]
JordanFruit Stomach ache [133]
leafAntidiabetic [109]
Morocco LeafEye infection[134]
Resin Gum tissue strengthener, breath deodorizer, cough, chill, and stomach disease[27]
TurkeyFruit Mouth disease [138]
leafAs vegetables and food[127]
Resin Wound healing[138]

Pistacia terebinthus Greece Resin Antidote, aphrodisiac, expectorant, and treatment of leprosy[139]
IranResin Smoke of it as air purifier and antiseptic[140]
Leaf, barkAstringent and antidiarrhea [11]
JordanResinDiuretic, laxative, stimulant, and aphrodisiac[18]
LeafDiuretic, antihypertensive, and treatment of jaundice[18]
SpainAerial partHypotensive and cephalalgic [141]
BranchAntiseptic [141]
Flower, leafOdontalgia and Dislocated joint[142]
FruitAntiprostatitis [141]
TurkeyFruitCold, flu, diuretic, stomach ache, rheumatism, stimulant, antitussive, appetizer, as coffee, urinary inflammations, and
soap production
[29, 53, 138, 143]
LeafStomach ache, mycosis, and antidiabetic[29, 53, 144, 145]
ResinUrinary and respiratory antiseptic, asthma, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory[53]

Pistacia vera Iran Nut shellTonic, sedative, and antidiarrhea[11]
Fruit Food [10]
Jordan Oil Facial skin cleanser[133]
TurkeyResinAsthma, stomach ache, and hemorrhoids[146]

Pistacia khinjuk IranAerial part Veterinary use[147]
ResinStomach discomfort, nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness[148]

Different parts of Pistacia species including resin, leave, fruit, and aerial part have been traditionally used for a wide range of purposes. Among them, P. lentiscus is the most commonly used in different regions and resin of that has been utilized for as long as 5000 years. Resin of P. lentiscus has been used for variety of gastric ailments in the Mediterranean and Middle East countries for the last 3000 years [8]. It was used in ancient Egypt as incense; it has also been used as a preservative and breath sweetener [4] Most of the traditional uses reports for resin of P. atlantica are from Iran and have been used for the treatment of digestive, hepatic, and kidney diseases [9]. Fruit of P. vera (pistachio) is used all over the world. Records of the consumption of pistachio as a food date to 7000 BC [4]. Pistachio is cultivated in the Middle East, United States, and Mediterranean countries. Iran is one of the biggest producers and exporters of pistachio nuts [10]. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), different parts of P. vera, P. atlantica, P. khinjuk P. terebinthus, and P. lentiscus have been used for a long time as useful remedies for different diseases, for example, the fruit kernel of P. vera as a cardiac, stomach, hepatic, and brain tonic; the fruits of P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and P. terebinthus for their aphrodisiac activity and treatment of liver, kidney, heart, and respiratory system disorders, and the gum resin of P. lentiscus, P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and P. terebinthus for their wound healing activity, and treatment of brain and gastrointestinal disorders [9, 11].

3. Phytochemical Studies

Various compounds from different phytochemical groups were identified in Pistacia species. These are summarized below and also in Table 2 based on the structure of finding components.


Name of compoundStructureSpeciesPlant partReferences

Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and volatile oil
1 -pinene219815.tab.002a P.  vera  

Leaf and unripe fruit
Resin
[14]

[12, 15]
P.  terebinthus Fruit
Aerial part
[16]
[17]
P. terebinthus  
var. palaestina
Leaf and gall[18]
P.  lentiscus var. chia Resin[19]
P.  lentiscus   Leaf
Fruit
Aerial part
[20]
[21]
[2224]
P.  atlantica   Leaf, fruit, and gall
Resin
[25]
[26, 27]

2Limonene219815.tab.002b P.  vera Leaf[28]
Fruit[28]
Resin[12]
P.  terebinthus Unripe and ripe fruits[29]
P.  lentiscus Fruit[28]
Leaf[28, 36]

3Terpinolene219815.tab.002cP.  vera  
P.  atlantica
Leaf
Leaf
[28]
[28]

4 -Ocimene219815.tab.002d

5 -Ocimene219815.tab.002e P.  vera
P.  terebinthus
Leaf
Unripe and ripe fruits
Leaf
[28]

[18]

[28]

6Terpinen-4-ol219815.tab.002fP.  terebinthus Leaf [30]
P.  atlantica Unripe fruits[31]
Leaf [27, 31]
P.  lentiscus Aerial parts[22]
Leaf [30, 35]

7p-Cymene219815.tab.002gP.  terebinthus Young shoots[29]

8Bornyl acetate219815.tab.002hP.  atlantica Fruits[27]

9 Sabinene219815.tab.002i P.  atlantica Fruits[28]
Unripe fruits[31]
Leaf buds[31]
P.  lentiscus Fruits
Leaf
[28]

10 Myrcene219815.tab.002jP.  atlantica Unripe fruits[31]
Leaf [31]
P.  lentiscus Fruits [34, 36]
Leaf

11 p-Mentha-1 (7),8 diene
219815.tab.002kP.  atlantica Leaf
Leaf buds
[31]
[31]

12 -carene219815.tab.002lP.  atlantica Unripe galls[32]

13Verbenone219815.tab.002mP.  lentiscus Mastic water 
Mastic oil
[33] 
  [19]

14 -terpineol219815.tab.002nP.  lentiscus Mastic water
Mastic oil
[33] 
  [19]

15Linalool219815.tab.002oP.  lentiscus Mastic water[33]

16Trans-pinocarveol219815.tab.002pP.  lentiscus Mastic water[33]

17 -pinene219815.tab.002qP.  lentiscus Resin[30]

18Camphene219815.tab.002rP.  vera Resin[12]

19Carvacrol219815.tab.002sP.  vera Resin[12]

20Germacrene-D219815.tab.002tP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
Leaf
Flowers
[28]
[29]

21 -caryophyllene219815.tab.002uP.  terebinthus Leaf [28]
P.  lentiscus Leaf [34]
Galls[24]

22Spathulenol219815.tab.002vP.  atlantica  
P.  khinjuk
Leaf
Leaf
[37]
[38]

23Longifolene219815.tab.002wP.  lentiscus Aerial parts[39]

Diterpenoids
24Abietadiene219815.tab.002xP.  vera Resin[12]

25Abietatriene219815.tab.002yP.  vera Resin[12]

Triterpenoids
26Masticadienonic acid219815.tab.002zP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
P.  atlantica
Resin
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]
[42]

27Masticadienolic acid219815.tab.002aaP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
P.  atlantica
Resin
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]
[42]

28Morolic acid219815.tab.002bbP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
P.  atlantica
Resin
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]
[42]

29Oleanolic acid219815.tab.002ccP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
P.  atlantica
Resin
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]
[42]

30Ursonic acid219815.tab.002ddP.  atlantica Resin[42]

31Tirucallol219815.tab.002eeP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]

32Dammaradienone219815.tab.002ffP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]

33 -Amyrin219815.tab.002ggP.  lentiscus  
  P.  terebinthus
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]

34Lupeol219815.tab.002hhP.  lentiscus  
P.  terebinthus
Resin
Resin
[40]
[41]

353-O-acetyl-3-epiisomasticadienolic acid219815.tab.002iiP.  atlantica Resin[42]

Phenolic compounds
36Gallic acid219815.tab.002jjP.  vera

P.  lentiscus

P.  atlantica
Seed and skin
Leaf
Fruit
Gall and Leaf
[44] 
[45] 
[52]

[46]

37Catechin219815.tab.002kkP.  vera      P.  lentiscus Seed and skin
Leaf
[44] 
[45]

38Epicatechin219815.tab.002llP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

39Digallic acid219815.tab.002mmP.  lentiscus Fruits[47]

403-(8-Pentadecenyl)-phenol 219815.tab.002nnP.  vera Kernel[48]

41Trans-resveratrol219815.tab.002ooP.  vera Kernel[4951]

42Cis-resveratrol219815.tab.002ppP.  vera Kernel[49]

433,4,5-Tri-O-galloyl quinic acid219815.tab.002qqP.  lentiscus Leaf[45]

44Monogalloyl glucose219815.tab.002rrP.  lentiscus Leaf[45]

451,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloyl glucose219815.tab.002ssP.  lentiscus Fruit[52]

46Naringenin219815.tab.002ttP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

47Eriodictyol219815.tab.002uuP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

48Daidzein219815.tab.002vvP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

49Genistein219815.tab.002wwP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

50Quercetin219815.tab.002xxP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

51Kaempferol219815.tab.002yyP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

52Apigenin219815.tab.002zzP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

53Luteolin219815.tab.002aaaP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

54Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside219815.tab.002bbbP.  vera Seed and skin[44]

556′-Hydroxyhypolaetin 3′-methyl ether219815.tab.002cccP.  terebinthus Fruits[53]

56Quercetin-3-glucoside219815.tab.002dddP.  atlantica  
P.  lentiscus
Aerial parts[54]

573-Methoxycarpachromene219815.tab.002eeeP.  atlantica Aerial parts[55]

58Myricetin-3-glucoside219815.tab.002fffP.   khinjuk Aerial parts[54]

59Myricetin-3-galactoside219815.tab.002gggP.   khinjuk Aerial parts[54]

60Myricetin-3-rutinoside 219815.tab.002hhhP.   khinjuk Aerial parts[54]

61Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside219815.tab.002iii P.  vera  

P.  lentiscus  

Skin 
Nuts  
Berries  
leaves
[44]
[56]
[57]

[7]
[45]

62Cyanidin-3-galactoside219815.tab.002jjjP.  vera Skin
Nuts
[44, 56]
[57]

63Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside219815.tab.002kkkP.  lentiscus Berries
Leaves
[7]
[45]

3.1. Terpenoids
3.1.1. Monoterpenoids, Sesquiterpenoids, and Volatile Oil

Essential oil is one of the main components reported from different parts of Pistacia species including leaves, resin, ripe and unripe fruits, galls, leaf-buds, twigs, and flowers. Analysis of essential oils is mostly performed by means of gas-chromatography (GC) based techniques. There are many qualitative and quantitative variations between the content of essential oils. These variations are related to several parameters like plant species and part, sex of cultivars, harvesting time, geographical origin, and climatic conditions [12, 13]. Hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpens are the major chemical constituents in essential oil and among hydrocarbon monoterpens, α-pinene (1) has been reported as the main compound of some samples like P. vera [12, 14, 15], P. terebinthus [1618], P. lentiscus [1924], and P. atlantica [2527]. In addition to α-pinene, other major components isolated from different parts of Pistacia species are as follows: limonene (2), α-terpinolene, and ocimene (3,4) from fruits and leaves of P. vera [28]; (E)-β-Ocimene (5) and limonene in fruits [18, 28, 29]; (E)-β-Ocimene and terpinen-4-ol (6) in leaves and p-cymen, (7) in young shoots of P. terebinthus [2830]; bornyl acetate (8), terpinen-4-ol, sabinene (9), and myrcene (10) in fruits, terpinen-4-ol, myrcene, p-mentha-1 (7),8 diene (11), and ocimene from leaves [27, 28, 31], sabinene and p-mentha-1 (7),8 diene in leaf buds, and -carene (12) in unripe galls of P. atlantica [31, 32]. Monoterpens are also detected in mastic water which was separated from the mastic oil during steam distillation. Verbenone (13), α-terpineol (14), linalool (15), and trans-pinocarveol (16) are the main constituents of mastic water [33]. β-pinene (17) in oleoresin, β-myrcene and sabinene in fruits [28, 30, 34], terpinen-4-ol in aerial parts [22], and limonene, myrcene, sabinene, and teroinen-4-ol in leaves of P. lentiscus were determined as the main composition [28, 30, 35, 36].

Some of the other monoterpenes identified as effective antibacterial components of these essential oils are camphene (18), limonene, and carvacrol (19) from P. vera resin [12].

Sesquiterpenes isolated in lower amount compared with monoterpenes. Germacrene-D (20) and β-caryophyllene (21) were identified in P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus leaves with higher concentration in comparison with other sesquiterpenes [28]. Spathulenol (22), an azulenic sesquiterpene alcohol, is the predominant component of leaves of P. atlantica and P. khinjuk [37, 38]. Congiu et. al. [34] recovered Caryophyllene with the highest amount from P. lentiscus leaves by means of supercritical CO2 extraction. Germacrene-D in P. terebinthus flowers, β-caryophyllene in P. lentiscus galls, and Longifolene (23) in aerial parts of P. lentiscus are dominant [24, 29, 39].

3.1.2. Diterpenoids

Trace amounts of Diterpenoids were isolated from the essential oil of these species. Abietadiene (24) and abietatriene (25) were detected in essential oil of P. vera resin [12].

3.1.3. Triterpenoids

Resin of these species has been characterized by penta and tetracyclic triterpenes. Triterpenes such as masticadienonic acid (26), masticadienolic acid (27), morolic acid (28), oleanolic acid (29), ursonic acid (30) and their derivatives have been detected in acidic fractions of P. lentiscus, P. terebinthus, and P. atlantica resins [4042]. Several triterpenoid compounds were isolated from neutral fraction of P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus resins like tirucallol (31), dammaradienone (32), β-Amyrin (33), lupeol (34), oleanolic aldehyde, and 28-norolean-12-en-3-one. Quantitative and qualitative varieties in chemical composition of resins according to the method of collection were reported [40, 41].

Anti-inflammatory properties have been reported from masticadienolic acid, masticadienonic acid, and morolic acid isolated from P. terebinthus [43]. Among triterpenes isolated from the resin of three sub-species of P. atlantica (kurdica, cabulica and mutica), 3-O-acetyl-3-epiisomasticadienolic acid (35) has been identified as the most effective antimicrobial agent [42].

3.2. Phenolic Compounds

Gallic acid (36), catechin (37), epicatechin (38), and gallic acid methyl ester were identified in P. vera seed and skin, leaves of P. lentiscus and leaves and galls of P. atlantica [4446]. Bhouri et al. [47] demonstrated that digallic acid (39) from fruits of P. lentiscus has anti-mutagenic properties. Monounsaturated, diunsaturated, and saturated cardanols have been detected in P. vera kernel. 3-(8-Pentadecenyl)-phenol (40) was the dominating cardanol in P. vera [48]. Trans and cis isomers of phytoalexin, resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) (41-42), and trans-resveratrol-3-O-β-glucoside (trans-piceid) were quantified in P. vera kernel [4951]. P. lentiscus leaf is a rich source of polyphenol compounds (7/5% of leaf dry weight) especially galloyl derivatives like mono, di, and tri-O-galloyl quinic acid (43) and monogalloyl glucose (44) [45].

1,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloyl glucose (45) and gallic acid from fruits of P. lentiscus were introduced as antioxidant and anti-mutagenic compounds [52].

Flavonoid compounds have been detected in different parts of these species. Naringenin (46), eriodyctyol (47), daizein (48), genistein (49), quercetin (50), kaempferol (51), apigenin (52), and luteolin (53) were isolated from P. vera fruit, and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (54) is the main constituent of seed [44]. Decrease in flavonoid content of P. vera has been reported during the fruit ripening [51]. In addition to some known flavonoids isolated from P. terebinthus and P. atlantica fruits, 6′-hydroxyhypolaetin 3′-methyl ether (55) has been identified in fruits of P. terebinthus [46, 53]. Flavonoids were also isolated from aerial parts of P. atlantica and P. lentiscus, and quercetin-3-glucoside (56) was reported as the most abundant one [54]. 3-Methoxycarpachromene (57), a flavone with antiplasmodial activity, was isolated from aerial parts of P. atlantica [55].

Myricetin-3-glucoside (58), myricetin-3-galactoside (59), and myricetin-3-rutinoside (60) are the major flavonoid glycosides from P. khinjuk [54]. Myricetin derivatives also were determined as 20% of the total polyphenol amount of P. lentiscus leaves [45].

Anthocyanins have been reported from some Pistacia species. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (61), cyanidin-3-galactoside (62), and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside are the main anthocyanins of P. vera fruit [44, 56, 57]. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (63) have been detected in P. lentiscus berries and leaves [7, 45].

3.3. Fatty Acids and Sterols

Pistacia species have oleaginous fruits considered by several researchers. The oil content in P. vera kernel and seed is about 50–60% [58, 59] and in ripe fruits of P. lentiscus, P. terebinthus, and P. atlantica is 32.8–45% [6063]. The main fatty acid in seed and kernel of P. vera is oleic acid [58, 64, 65]. Oleic acid has been also determined as the most abundant fatty acid in oil of P. atlantica and P. terebinthus fruits [62, 66, 67]. Increase of oleic acid and decrease of linoleic acid have been recorded during ripening of P. lentiscus fruits [60]. Other fatty acids identified in these species are linolenic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, myristic, eicosanoic, behenic, lignoceric, arachidonic, pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, octadecanoic, and margaric acid [58, 66, 68].

The most abundant sterol reported in fruits of P. vera, P. atlantica, P. lentiscus, and P. terebinthus is β-sitosterol fallowed by campesterol, -avenasterol, stigmasterol, brassicasterol, and cholesterol [59, 60, 69, 70].

The oil from fruits of P. atlantica, P. lentiscus, and P. terebinthus, in addition to its desirable odor and taste, has been recommended as a new source for production of vegetable oils concerning the high amount of mono-unsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids like oleic acid and linolenic acid and high quantity of phytosterols like β-sitosterol [60, 68].

3.4. Miscellaneous

Chlorophylls a and b and lutein are the major colored components of P. vera nuts [56]. Pheophytin, β-carotene, neoxanthin, luteoxanthin, and violaxanthin were also determined in different samples of P. vera nuts [71]. α-tocopherol was determined in leaves of P. lentiscus, P. lentiscus var. chia, and P. terebithus [72]. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are the most abundant constituents of unsaponifiable matter of P. atlantica hull oil [73]. Different isomers of tocopherol, tocotrienol, and plastochromanol-8 have been identified in seed oil of P. terebinthus [70]. Evaluating the nutritional composition of P. terebinthus fruits illustrates the richness of this fruit in protein, oil, minerals, and fiber [62, 68].

4. Pharmacological Aspects

Different pharmacological activities of five mentioned Pistacia species have been described in detail in Table 3.


Pharmacological activityPlantPlant partAssay Extract/essential oil/isolated componentDose or
concentration
ObservationsRef.

Antioxidant P.  lentiscus FruitsIn vitro DPPH method Polyphenols:
galic acid (GA)
and 1,2,3,4,6 pentagalloyl-glucose (PGA)
1, 3, 10, 30, and
100 µg/mL
Dose dependent radical scavenging activity of GA (IC50: 2 µg/mL) and PGA (IC50: 1 µg/mL) [52]
Xanthine oxidase inhibition100, 200, and 300 µg/mL formation of uric acid and superoxide anions (O2-) by increasing concentrations of both GA and PGA
Inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 in K562 cell line200, 400, and 800 µg/mL for GA and 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL for PGADose dependent inhibition by GA (IC50: 220 µg/mL) and PGA (IC50: 200 µg/mL)
LeafReducing power Seven different extracts
(1) Ethanol,
(2) Ethyl acetate,
(3) Aqueous/ethyl acetate,
(4) Hexane,
(5) Aqueous/hexane,
(6) Chloroform,
(7) Aqueous/chloroform
100 µg/mLHigher activity of aqueous fractions from hexane and chloroform than standards (BHA and -tocopherol) [75]
Linoleic acid peroxidation100 µg/mLInhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation by aqueous extracts from chloroform and hexane comparable to those of the standard (BHA)
DPPH method10–100 µg/mLHigh scavenging activity (90%) equivalent to that of the standard BHA (89%) by all extracts except chloroform
Scavenging activity against hydrogen peroxide100 µg/mLHigh scavenging capacity against H2O2 comparable to standards ( -tocopherol and BHA)
Aerial partsDPPH methodEssential oil 0.2, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mMAntioxidant activity ranged between 0.52 and 4.61 mmol/L[74]
DPPH methodMethanolic
extracts
100, 80, 50, 30, 20, 10, and 5 mg/LIC50 ranged between 5.09 and 11.0 mg/L[23]
FRAP assay5000 mg/LActivity ranged between 84.6 and 131.4 mmol Fe2+/L plant extract; IC50: 5.09–11.0 (mg/L)
P.  lentiscus var. chia ResinOil oxidation assay by the oven test Resin solution in dichloromethane0.05, 0.1, and 0.15% w/wSignificant antioxidant activity [149]
P.  lentiscus Fruit ABTS Digallic acid 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/mLFree radical scavenging activity towards the ABTS + radical was 99% at 0.2 mg/mL [47]
Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition and superoxide scavenging activity50, 100, and 150 µg/mL 21% XO inhibitory activity at 150 µg/mL; 28% reduction of superoxide anion activity
TBARs200, 400, and 800 µg/mL lipid peroxidation (IC50: 178 µg/mL)
GumElectron-spin resonance Spectroscopy for the determination of hydroxyl radical by Fenton reaction Mastic in waterNDEffectively scavenged hydroxyl radical generated by the
Fenton reaction
[76]
Nitrate/nitrite
colorimetric assay
0–3 mg/mLNo nitric oxide scavenging activity
P.  lentiscus  var. chia, P.  terebinthus.  var. chia GumCopper-induced LDL oxidationHexane and methanol/water extracts2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg/2 mLLDL protective activity;
methanol/water extract of P.  lentiscus showed the most LDL protection
[77]
P.  lentiscus LeafReduction power activityEthanolic extract0.25; 0.5; 0.75;
1; 2; 3 mg/mL
Reducing power comparable to ascorbic acid [88]
Pyrogallol autoxidation methodNDSuperoxide anions scavenging activity
P.  atlantica. LeafReduction power activityEthanolic extracts0.25; 0.5; 0.75;
1; 2; 3 mg/mL
Reducing power close to values observed by ascorbic acid [88]
Pyrogallol autoxidation methodNDSuperoxide anions scavenger at a concentration as low as 0.0625 mg/mL
P.  atlantica  
subsp. mutica
HullFRAP test The unsaponifiable matter (USM) of fruit’s hull oil100 mg in 10 mL of n-hexaneSignificant reducing power; the highest reducing power amongst the USM fractions belonged to the tocopherols and tocotrienols and linear and triterpenic alcohols respectively [80]
DPPH radical-scavenging assayND
EC50 value significantly lower than α-tocopherol
Oven testNDSignificant stabilizing effect
P.  atlantica Leaf(1) Reducing power
(2) Chelating abilities on metallic ions
(3) Radical scavenging
Activity (DPPH)
(4) The total antioxidant activity (thiocyanate method in linoleic acid emulsion)
(5) Hydrogen peroxide
scavenging activity
Decoction(1) 20–100 μg/mL
(2) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 mg/mL
(3) 5–25 μg/mL
(4) 100 μg/mL
(5) 100 μg/mL
(1) Reducing power of significantly higher than -tocopherol and BHT and nearly similar to BHA
(2) The chelating activity of 1.0 mg/mL was nearly fourfold less than EDTA at 0.037 mg/mL and has slightly effective capacity for iron binding
(3) 85% inhibition rate at 15 μg/mL. nearly similar to ascorbic acid and BHA
(4) Higher antioxidant activity than -tocopherol and similar to BHA, BHT, and trolox
(5) Concentration-dependent scavenging compared to BHA, BHT, and -tocopherol
[78]
P.  atlantica  
subsp. mutica
Fruit hullRancimat
test
-Hexane extractDifferent percentages (up to 15%) The antioxidant activity of hull oil was exactly the same as that of TBHQ at low concentrations[79]
P.  atlantica Leaf DPPH testEssential oil50 µL Weak radical scavenging activity [32]
FRAP testNDHigher antioxidant capacity relative to ascorbic acid
P.  vera Fruit hullOven testWater and methanol extracts0.02%, 0.04%, and 0.06% in soybean oilEffective in retarding oil deterioration at 60°C; at concentration of 0.06%, similar to BHA and BHT added at 0.02%.[81]
P.  vera L., var. Bronte KernelABTS radical cation decolorization assayMethanol/water or
Dichloromethane
ND The antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extract was much lower than hydrophilic one[82]
Lipid peroxidation
(TBARS assay)
Hydrophilic extract0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/mL Radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner
Copper-mediated LDL oxidationHydrophilic extractExtracts from 30, 60, or 100 µg of nutInhibition of LDL oxidation
Seed and skin (hull)DPPH assay Methanol/water extract0.050–12.00 mg/mL Radical scavenging activity[44]
Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay
(ABTS radical)
NDAntioxidant power: 0 and  mmol Trolox/g of seeds and skins, respectively
Scavenging activity against the superoxide anionNDIC50 of and  mg for seeds and skins, respectively
P.  vera GumTBARS and FRAP in ratExtract 0.1–0.5 g/kg brain MDA level by 63% and antioxidant power of brain by 235% [83]
HullDPPH assay Aqueous1, 1.5, 2,5, 3,5 and 4 μg/mLConcentration-dependent radical scavenging activity [150]
ABTS assayNDScavenging capacity of crude and purified extracts was higher than standards compounds (TBHQ and BHT)
-carotene bleaching method0.48–9.5 μg/mLConcentration-dependent antioxidant capacity
P.  terebinthus Leaf Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (ABTS/K2S8O2 method)Ethanol-water extractNDConsiderably higher antioxidant activity compared with BHA and ascorbic acid [84]
FruitsDPPH testAcetone and methanol extracts25, 50 and 100 µg/mLHigh radical scavenging activity [53]
Total antioxidant activity in -carotene-linoleic acid system 25, 50 and 100 µgIsolated pure 60-hydroxyhypolaetin-30-methyl
Ether showed higher antioxidant activity than both extracts and BHT
Superoxide anion scavenging activity50 µgBoth extracts had scavenging activity near to ascorbic acid; higher activity of methanol extract than acetone extract
FRAP0.2–1 µg/mLHigher reducing power of methanol extract than -tocopherol; acetone extract reducing power was equal to that of -tocopherol
Metal chelating activity1000–4000 µg/mLMethanol extract had higher activity than acetone extract
Fruits and 4 terebinth coffee brandsDPPH radical scavenging activityEthyl acetate and methanol extracts250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/mL High scavenging effect especially at 2000 μg/mL [85]
DMPD radical scavenging activityScavenging effect lower than that of quercetin
H2O2 radical scavenging activityInactive in scavenging H2O2 radical
Metal-chelation effectRemarkable metal-chelation properties as compared to
EDTA
FRAP assayHigh reducing power
PRAP assayHigh reducing power

Antimutagenic P.  lentiscus LeafAflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenicity in S.  typhimurium TA 100 Essential oil250, 500 and 1000 µg/plateMutagenic inhibition of 76.7% by 250, 82.8% by 500, and 96.5% by 1000 µg/plate [86]
(AFB1)-induced mutagenicity in S.  typhimurium TA100 or TA98Essential oil 0.3, 250, 500, 1000 µg/plate
In TA100: 76, 82.8, and 96.5%, mutagenic inhibition rate for 250, 500, and 1000 µg/plate, respectively; in TA98: 99 and 100% mutagenic inhibition rate with 250 and 500 µg/plate [87]
Aqueous extract0.3, 50, 300, 600 µg/plate50 µg/plate: 23% inhibition in TA100 and 52.2% in TA98; 300 and 600 µg/plate: 67.7 and 87.8% for TA100 and 58–76.8% for TA98
Flavonoid-enriched extract extracts50, 300, 600 µg/plateTA100: 47, 75.3, and 88.6% inhibition by 50, 300, and 600 µg/plate, respectively; TA98: 62.5, 77, and 93.5% inhibition by 50, 300, and 600 µg/plate, respectively
Sodium azide-
induced mutagenicity
in S.  typhimurium TA1535 and TA100
Essential oil 1.5, 10, 15, 30 µg/PlateTA100: 79, 83, and 94% inhibition by 10, 15, and 30 µg/plate, respectively; TA1535:, 62, 76, and 93% inhibition by 10, 15, and 30 µg/plate, respectively
Aqueous extract1.5, 50, 300, 600 µg/plateTA100: 92, 96, and 98% inhibition by 50, 300, and 600 µg, respectively; TA 1535: 62, 80, and 94% for the same concentrations
Flavonoid-enriched extract extracts50, 300, 600 µg/plate50 and 300 µg/plate: from 54 to 68% inhibition in TA1535 and from 84 to 93% in TA100

Anitmicrobial and antiviral P.  lentiscus LeafDisc diffusionEssential oil0.03, 0.15, 0.62, 2.5, 10.0, 40.0 mg/mLNoticeable activity against S. enteritidis  (MIC: 30 µg/mL) and St.  aureus  (30 µg/mL); less important activity against S. typhimurium, (MIC: 150 µg/mL);
No significant inhibitory activity towards Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis
[86]
Disc diffusion Ethanolic extract 5 and 10 μL No effect on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Significant inhibition against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi [88]
Disc diffusionEthanolic extract 50, 100, 500 μL, and 1 mL Inhibiting activity on Trichoderma sp and Fusarium sp [88]
Disc diffusion Aqueous extract ND Most active against S. typhimurium, (MIC: 4 μg/mL), significant inhibitory activity towards P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (MIC: 40 μg/mL), and no activity against S. aureus, E. coli, and Ent. faecalis up to 1000 μg/mL[87]
Disc diffusion Total oligomer flavonoid-enriched extract NDTOF extract exhibited antibacterial activity only against S. typhimurium  (MIC: 100 μg/mL)
Microdilution agar Essential oil NDActivity against S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MICs between 30 and 620 μg/mL). No effect on Ent. foecalis, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli up to 1000 μg/mL
P.  lentiscus  var. chia GumDisc diffusion Essential oil and its fractions and componentsNDEscherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis were resistant to -pinene. E. coli is resistant to -myrcene, S. aureus showed an intermediate response, and B. subtilis is sensitive to it. p-Cymene, -caryophyllene, methyl isoeugenol, limonene, -terpinene, and trans-anethole showed moderate antibacterial activity, and in some cases, the bacteria were resistant to them. E. coli and S. aureus were resistant to -pinene, slightly inhibited B. subtilis.
Verbenone, R-terpineol, and linalool showed higher antibacterial activity than other components
[19]
GumDisc diffusion Mastic gum water (MWR) and its major constituents MWR (58 mg/mL), (−)-trans-pinocarveol (13 mg/mL), (−)-linalool (37.6 mg/mL), -linalool (36.6 mg/mL), (−)-verbenone (29.5 mg/mL), and (+)- -terpineol (29.2 mg/mL)The broadest average inhibition zones were for E. coli and S. aureus by (+)- -terpineol and -linalool compared to the positive control (gentamicin 10 µg); significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans by MWR[33]
Microdilution 4%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.063%, and
0.032% (v/v)
The most potent antimicrobial constituents were -linalool and -terpineol against E. coli and S. aureus. Significant antifungal activity of MWR, -linalool, (−)-verbenone, and (+)- -terpineol against C. albicans
P.  lentiscusGumNDLiquid mastic2% liquid masticActivity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella melaninogenica [76]
Human T-cell leukemia MT-4 cells infected with HIV-1IIIB; viable cell number determination by MTT assaySolid and liquid masticSolid mastic: 0–200 μg/mL; liquid mastic: 0–0.0006%Neither solid nor liquid mastic had any anti-HIV activity compared to positive controls
Pistacia lentiscus  var. chia GumMicrodilutionTotal mastic extract without polymer (TMEWP),
acidic and neutral fractions
MEWP: 0.049 to 1.560 mg/mL, fractions: 0.060 to 1.920 mg/mLThe acidic fraction exhibited the highest activity against Helicobacter pylori followed by the TMEWP and neutral fraction [33]
In vivo administration of extract in infected mice with H. pylori Total mastic extract without polymer (TMEWP)180 µg/mL Moderately reduced H. pylori colonization in the antrum and corpus of the mice stomach. Visible reduction in H. pylori colonization observed in histopathology evaluations
P.  lentiscus,
P.  atlantica
(sp.  cabulica, kurdica, and mutica)
GumBroth microdilution Isolated components of the acidic fractions of the gumND The MIC values for the components ranged from 0.1 to 50 μg/mL against the strains of H. pylori and all Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes Pseudomonas fluorescens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Proteus vulgaris and ranged from 2 to 100 μg/mL against Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, and Corynebacterium sp [151]
P.  atlantica  
(sp. kurdica)
GumNDEssential oil,
-pinene
ND Against all tested bacteria mentioned in previous row, MIC values for essential oil and pure -pinene ranged 500–1000 mg/mL[152]
P.  atlantica Leaf and twigModified [3H]-hypoxanthine incorporation assay
Flavone 3-methoxycarpachromene from ethyl acetate extract0.8 and 4.9 µg/mLIC50 of 3.4 µM against P.  falciparum K1 strain where the positive controls artemisinin and chloroquine had IC50s of 3.6 and 89 nM, respectively[55]
Leaf and fruit dermDisk diffusion methodMethanol, ethanol,
ethanol + water, and water extracts
25, 50 and 75 mg/mLDose dependent activity against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis; less activity in comparison with gentamicin (10 μg/disk), tobramycin (10 μg/disk), and kanamycin (30 μg/disk)[91]
LeafDisc diffusion Ethanolic extract5 and 10 μL Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were not sensitive to the extract. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi showed a sensitizing effect at the 5 μL and a very significant effect at 10 μL [88]
Disc diffusion Ethanolic extract(50, 100, 500 μL, and 1 mL) of ethanolic extract (0.338 g/mL)No inhibiting activity was observed against Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma sp,  Fusarium sp and Aspergillus flavus
Gall Disc diffusion Aqueous extract4.9 mg Activity against the Bacillus species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [92]
Leaf and gallDisc diffusion Essential oilsFinal 0.1% v/v Delayed not block fungal growth in Fomitopsis pinicola and Penicillium sp. by volatile constituents of galls; volatile constituents of leaf inhibited only the growth of Penicillium sp
GumAgar disc diffusionEssential oil10−1, 10−2, 10−3, and 10−4μg/mLMost active against E. coli followed by S. aureus and S.  pyogenes. [90]
Inhibitory quantity (MIQ) method0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/mLS. aureus and S. pyogenes were susceptible to 0.5 μg/mL, and E. coli was tolerant to this concentration
Maruzzella method10−1, 10−2, 10−3μg/mLE. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes were sensitive to 10−1μg/mL
P.  atlantica  var. kurdica Gum Mice infected with Leishmania major Gum Locally rubbed on lesions Skin lesion size in mice infected with L. major compared with control ; number of parasitologicaly positive mice [93]
P. terebinthus LeafMicrodilution Hydroalocholic extract0.024, 0.049, 0.097, 0.19, 0.78, 1.56, and 25 mg/mL (for S.  aureus)
0.049–12.5 mg/mL (for E.  coli)
Activity against S. aureus with a MIC: ≤1.56 mg/mL.
No antimicrobial effect on E. coli.
[84]
GumDisc diffusion,
microdilution
Essential oil and gum smokeNDActivity of essential oil against all tested bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; activity of nonpolar smoke fraction on all of strains especially on S. dysenteriae, E. coli, B. subtilis, and P. aeruginosa [140]
P.  khinjuk Not mentiondDisc diffusion,
microdilution
Ethanolic extract and its fractions
NDActive against Gram-positive
and Gram-negative bacteria especially n-butanolic fraction
[153]
LeafMicrodilution Chloroform, ethyl acetate,
ethyl alcohol, and diethyl ether extracts
NDActivity against bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC = 0.02–0.5 mg/mL) and fungi including Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC = 0.06–0.4 mg/mL). Chloroform extract inhibited growth of fungi more than others
[38]
Leaf, fruits dermDisc diffusion Methanolic extract25, 50, 75 mg/mL Hydroalcoholic extract of fruits derm on E. coli, water extract on S. epidermidis, and methanolic extract on S. aureus (all in 75 mg/mL) had higher antibacterial activity than tobramycin and same as gentamicin and kanamycin[91]
P.  vera Leaf, branch,
stem, seed
In vitro study on four parasitic protozoaLipophylic extracts0.8 to 9.7 µg/mLNo inhibitory activity against Trypanosoma brucei  rhodesiense [94]
Not any significant inhibitory potential against Trypanosoma cruzi
Remarkable activity of branches extract at 4.8 µg/mL against Leishmania donovani
Dried leaf extract displayed notable activity against Plasmodium falciparum at 4.8 µg/mL
GumHole-plate,
agar dilution
Essential oil1/10, 1/20, 1/40, 1/80,
and 1/100 v/v
All isolates of Helicobacter pylori were sensitive to the essential oil (MIC: 1.55 µg/mL)[15]
Agar-disc diffusion, broth microdilution, and broth susceptibility Essential oilof 2 and 4 µL Dose dependent activities against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, B. megaterium, Mycobacterium smegmatis, St.  aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Kluyveromyces fragilis Rhodotorula rubra, and
Candida albicans
[12]
HullDisk diffusion testAqueous1200 μg/plateGram positive bacteria were the most sensitive [150]
Agar dilution method0.5 to 10 mg/mL
Leaf, branch, stem, kernel,
shell skins, and seeds
Microdilution Lipophylic extracts256 and 512 mg/mLGreater activity against Gram positive bacteria than Gram-negative; remarkable antifungal activity against C.  albicans and C. parapsilosis [89]
In vitro antiviral assay Extracts of shell skin and fresh kernel had significant activity against Parainfluenza virus and Herpes simplex virus same as the acyclovir

Anti-inflammatory P. terebinthus GallPhospholipase A2 (PLA2)
induced hind-paw mouse edema
Methanolic extract200 mg/kgInhibition of edema [95]
Ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP) induced mouse
ear edema
1 mg/earInhibition of edema by 44%.
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
(TPA)-induced mouse ear edema
1 mg/earNonsignificant effect
Mouse ear edema induced by multiple topical applications of TPA1 mg/ear58% inhibition of chronic inflammatory swelling
In vitro phospholipase A2 activity assayND activity of the enzyme by 75%
Myeloperoxidase assayND activity of the enzyme by 73%
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-induced hind-paw mouse edemaMasticadienonic acid, masticadienolic acid, and morolic acid from methanolic extract30 mg/kgInhibition of edema by all triterpenes [95]
Ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP) induced mouse
ear edema
1 mg/ear31% and 38% nonsignificant inhibition of edema by masticadienolic acid and morolic acid, whereas masticadienonc acid was inactive
Mouse ear edema induced by multiple topical
applications of TPA
0.3 mg/earInhibition of swelling and neutrophil infiltration by all compounds
Myeloperoxidase assay10–100 µg/mL80% inhibition of enzyme activity by all the compounds
Inhibition of the production of LTB4 from rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)12.5–100 µMInhibition of leukotriene B4 production in rat PMNL by all compounds
Ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced mouse ear oedemaOleanolic acid and its semisynthetic 3-oxo-analogue1 mg/earNo activity on the edema [95]
Mouse ear edema induced by TPA0.5 mg/earA nonsignificant 28% inhibition
Mouse edema induced by DPP0.5 mg/ear swelling by 40% similar to standard (carbamazepine)
Delayed type hypersensitivity induced by fluorobenzene
in mouse ear
Oleanolic and oleanonic acids0.5 mg/earOleanonic acid: ineffective at both 24 and 96 h; oleanolic acid: edema nonsignificantly at 96 h by 32%
Mouse ear inflammation induced by multiple topical applications of TPA0.3 mg/earOleanonic acid: significant effect with 45% inhibition; oleanolic acid: inactive
Myeloperoxidase assayNDInhibition of neutrophil infiltration by oleanonic and oleanolic 84% and 67%, respectively
Phospholipase A2-induced hind paw mouse edema30 mg/kg edema by both compounds
Bradykinin-induced mouse paw edemaOleanonic acid30 mg/kg edema by 61%
Inhibition of leukotriene B4 production from rat
polymorphonuclear leukocytes
ND leukotriene B4 (IC50: 17 µM)
P.  vera Fruits,
leaf, branches,
peduncles, and oleoresin
Carrageenan-induced hind paw edemaEthanolic and aqueous extracts250, 500 mg/kgAmong all extracts, only the oleoresin exhibited a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity [146]
p-Benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test
in mice
250, 500 mg/kgAmong all extracts, only the oleoresin displayed antinociceptive activity with 32.1% inhibition at 500 mg/kg and 21.7% inhibition at 250 mg/kg
LeafHot plate testAqueous extract,
ethanolic extract
0.4 and 0.5 g/Kg Dose-dependent antinociceptive activity after 30–60 min of treatment[97]
Xylene-induced ear edemaAqueous extract0.4, 0.16, 0.28 g/kgSignificant anti-inflammatory activities
Chronic anti-inflammatory activity (granuloma pouch method)Aqueous extract, ethanolic extract0.4 g/Kg
0.35, 0.5 g/Kg
Significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity
Writhing testAqueous extract
ethanolic extract
0.4, 0.28 g/kg
0.35, 0.5 g/Kg
number of mouse abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid
P.  lentiscus var. chiaGum Modification of VCAM-1 and ICAM1 expression
by ELAISA
Neutral extract and isolated
phytosterol tirucallol
Extract: 25, 50, 100, 200 µg/mL
Tirucallol: 0.1, 1, 10, 100 µM
significant dose-dependent in vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression[98]
U937 cell adhesion assay adhesion of U937 cells to TNF- -stimulated human aortic endothelial cells
Measurement of NFkB p65 phosphorylation by ELISA phosphorylation of NFkB p65

Effects on Gastrointestinal disordersP.  lentiscus ResinPyloric ligation-,
Aspirin-, phenylbutazone-, and reserpine-induced and cold-restraint stress ulcer in rat
Powder finely suspended in corn oil An oral dose of 500 mg/kg
intensity of gastric mucosal damage in all models [103]
P.  lentiscus ResinTNBS-induced colitis in ratsPowder in polyherbal formulation50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of formula with 4% P.  lentiscus resin macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage; TNF- , IL-1 , MPO, and lipid peroxidation; not significantly increase in antioxidant power of colon[106]
P.  lentiscus var. chia.Resin3-week double-blind randomised placebo controlled study on patients with functional dyspepsiaPowder 350 mg TIDImproved the feeling of symptoms significantly [104]
P.  lentiscus var. chia.ResinDextran-sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis in micePowder0.20 g/kg chow (0.02%)
2.0 g/kg chow (0.20%)
Delayed the onset and progression of acute colitis and weight loss caused by the disease[105]
P.  lentiscus var. chia.Resin4-week pilot study on 10 patients with Crohn’s disease and 8 controls Capsules of fine
powder
2.22 g/day (6 caps/d, 0.37 g/cap) Crohn’s disease activity index and plasma inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6) without any side effects; immunomodulatory effect by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ) and ↑macrophage migration inhibitory factor[107]
P.  lentiscus var. chia Resin4-week pilot study on 10 patients with crohn’s disease and 8 controls Capsules of fine
powder
2.22 g/day (6 caps/d, 0.37 g/cap)Immunomodulatory activity TNF- and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in these patients[108]

AntidiabeticP.  atlantica Leaf In vitro and in vivo (normoglycemic and streptozocin-induced hyperglycemic rats) Aqueous extract2 mL plant extract equivalent to 200 mg of starting materialSignificant inhibitory effect on -amylase in vitro; no significant hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats[109]
In vitro enzymatic starch digestion and rat model Aqueous extract1, 5, 10, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/mL
125, 250, and 500 mg/kg
In vitro: significant dose dependent dual inhibition of -amylase and -glucosidase comparable to acarbose
In vivo: significant acute postprandial antihyperglycemic activity comparable to metformin and glipizide and improved glucose intolerance in oral starch tolerance test
[110]
P.  lentiscus  var. chia Resin Human studyPowder diluted in 250 mL of water0.7 g per day Significantly decrease (3.1 mg/dL per month, ) in serum glucose level among male subjects[111]

AntitumorP.  lentiscus var. chia Resin In vitro study on human colon cancer
cells (HCT116)
Ethanol extractNDInhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of human colorectal tumor cells[112]
P.  lentiscus Resin In vitro study on human leukemic cell line Liquid and solid resin0–200 μg/mL (solid mastic)
or 0–2 (v/v)% of liquid mastic
The most cytotoxic effect against promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 among 13 human cell types; inhibition of natural apoptosis of oral polymorphonuclear leukocytes[76]
In vivo human colon cancer/immunodeficient mouse modelHexane extract200 mg/kg administered daily for 4 consecutive
days (followed by 3 days without treatment)
Anticancer activity via its delay effect on the growth of colorectal tumors developed from HCT116 xenografted into mice[8]
Human cell line (androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line)ND2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 µg/mLRemarkable potency to decrease the expression and function of the androgen receptor in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP)[154]
Human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and DU-145), RT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to detect maspin expressionND2, 4, 6, and 8 µg/mLIncreased maspin expression in LNCaP cells[113]
The human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3), MTT assay, gene assay, RT-PCR, and
Western blotting
ND10, 20, and 30 µg/mL Inhibited proliferation and blocked the cell cycle progression in androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and the NF-κB signal pathway[114]
Lewis lung carcinoma cellsEssential oil0.01% v/vA time-dependent modification in the expression of 925 genes and phenomena in Lewis lung carcinoma cells by its antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities[155]
P.  atlantica sub. kurdicaFruit Immunocompetent mice Essential oil45 mg/kg intraperitoneally, 3 times a week for 3 weeksSignificant inhibition on tumor growth without signs of toxicity related to apoptosis induction, reduced neovascularization, and inhibiting chemokine expression[115]
Cells line and
the in vivo chicken embryo CAM angiogenesis model
Essential oil0.01–0.1% v/v Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on K562 human leukemia cells; inhibited the release of vascular endothelial growth factor from K562 and B16 mouse melanoma cell; concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation without affecting cell survival; significant decrease of microvessel formation[116]
Rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito-test)Powder in diet0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1%Promoted the preneoplastic lesions development in rat liver with increasing liver relative weight [117]
human colon carcinoma HT29 cellsEthanol : H2O (70 : 30)0.7 mg/mL50% growth inhibition similar to 500 nM of doxorubicin[119]
P.  vera Resin In vitro cytotoxic activity against human cell linesCrud methanolic extract fractionated against petroleum ether, chloroform,
and n-butanol
NDModerate cytotoxic effect against breast cancer cell line (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG2), cervix cancer cell line (HELA), and normal melanocytes (HFB4);
n-hexane fraction showed strong cytotoxic effect
(IC50: 3.15–4.17 µg/mL) against all of the tested cell lines, except for MCF7 (IC50: 13.5 µg/mL)
[120]

Effects on liver and serum biochemical parametersP.  lentiscusLeaf Rat model using Carbon tetrachloride Aqueous extract 4 mL/kg
(contained 1.946 g of solid matter)
bilirubin and activity of 3 enzymes including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)[121]
Rat model using Thioacetamide Aqueous extract15 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg Hepatic fibrosis, an inflammatory response, mild cholestasis, and depletion of reduced glutathione associated with an increase in its oxidized form for five weeks administration in healthy rats; in thioacetamide-induced rat liver lesions, it aggravated the inflammatory, fibrotic, and glutathione depleting responses without affecting the extent of lipid peroxidation[122]
P.  lentiscus var. chia Resin Human model Powder diluted in one glass (250 mL) of water 5 g Serum total cholesterol, LDL, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein B, AST, ALP, and gamma-GT were reduced in human subjects[111]
P.  lentiscus Seeds oilRabbit model, mercury induced toxicity Pistacia oil5% Mercury induced toxicity in rabbits caused increase in the level of ALP, AST, and urea serum, while it was reported that P.  lentiscus  oil-treated rabbits showed none of those changes[156]
P.  vera Fruit (roasted, unsalted pistachio nuts)Human model (10 patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia)Nut 20% in diet total cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, and LDL/HDL ratio and HDL after 3 weeks use [124]
P. terebinthus FruitRabbit modelFruit1 g/kgInhibited the development of hydropic degeneration and fatty changes in the liver and demonstrated hypolipidemic effect [125]

Effects on atherosclerosisP.  vera Fruit Rabbit model Methanolic and cyclohexane extractsMethanolic extract (1% v/w)
cyclohexane extract (5% v/w)
Beneficial effects on HDL, LDL, and aortic intimal thickness. The methanolic extract additionally showed an antioxidant activity and remarkable decrease in aortic surface lesions[123]
P. terebinthus FruitRabbit modelFruit1 g/kgInhibited the development of the atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic artery[125]
P.  lentiscus Resin Cell culture (peripheral blood mononuclear cell, PBMC); cell viability assessed via
MTT assay
Total polar extract 2.7, 27, and 270 µg/mLRestored intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels and downregulated CD36 mRNA expression resulted in antioxidant and antiatherogenic effects[126]

Anticholinesterase activityP.  atlantica leafTLC bioautography assay, Ellman’s colorimetric methodAqueous extract5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 µg/mLStrong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition[13]
P.  atlantica Leaf Ellman’s colorimetric methodMethanol and ethyl acetate extracts0.1 mg/mLRelatively weak AChE inhibitory activity[127]
P. terebinthus Fruit Ellman’s colorimetric method and the modified dopachrome method Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mLNo inhibitory activity against AChE and tyrosinase while selectively inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at moderate levels (below 50%) at the tested concentrations[85]

4.1. Antioxidant Activity

Different parts and constituents from P. lentiscus have been shown in vitro radical scavenging properties [23, 47, 52, 7476]. Pistacia lentiscus var. chia and P. terebinthus var. chia resins were effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation in vitro [77]. P. atlantica leaf and fruit have shown antioxidant activity similar to or significantly higher than those of standard antioxidant compounds in different in vitro antioxidant assays [7880]. However, the essential oil from P. atlantica leaf showed weak antioxidant activity in DPPH test compared to synthetic antioxidants [32]. P. vera fruit revealed significant antioxidant activity similar to the synthetic antioxidant [81]. Lipophilic extract from P. vera nuts showed lower antioxidant potential that than of hydrophilic extract [82]. One survey showed P. vera skins had a better antioxidant activity compared to seeds by means of four different assays because of higher content of antioxidant phenolic compounds in skins [44]. Antioxidant activity has been also reported from other parts of P. vera [83].

In one study, the extract from P. terebinthus leaf had nearly 12-fold higher antioxidant capacity than those of BHA and ascorbic acid [84]. P. terebinthus fruits showed noticeable metal-chelation properties as compared to EDTA and high radical scavenging activity similar to the standards. Antioxidant activity of the fruits may be elevated by roasting process [85].

4.2. Antimutagenic Activity

Essential oil and different extracts from P. lentiscus leaves indicated significant inhibitory effect on mutagenicity in vitro [86, 87]. Gallic acid, digallic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose, polyphenols isolated from the fruits of P. lentiscus, induced an inhibitory activity against mutagenicity and genotoxicity in in vitro assays [47, 52].

4.3. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities

Pistacia species have demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as shown in Table 3. Antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus resin, the essential oil and gum from P. atlantica var. kurdica and its major constituent α-pinene and P. vera gum against Helicobacter pylori were recorded [15, 33]. A study indicated that antibacterial activity of P. lentiscus gum oil can be attributed to combination of several components rather than to one particular compound. Verbenone, R-terpineol, and linalool showed high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis which is comparable to that of mastic oil itself [19]. P. lentiscus gum revealed selective antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella melaninogenica and had antiplaque activity on teeth by inhibiting bacterial growth in saliva [76].

Significant antifungal activity was seen from essential oil of P. lentiscus leaf and gum, different extracts of P. khinjuk leaf, and essential oil of P. vera gum [15, 19, 38, 88]. Evaluating the effect of P. vera gum essential oil on growth of 13 bacteria and 3 yeasts demonstrated inhibitory effect on all of them except Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia and more effective yeasticide than nystatin. Carvacrol was found to be the most effective constituent [12, 15]. Lipophylic extracts from different parts of P. vera showed a little antibacterial activity and noticeable antifungal one against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. Kernel and seed extracts showed significant antiviral activity [89].

Some active constituents of essential oil from the aerial parts of P. khinjuk responsible for its antibacterial and antifungal activity are α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, Germacrene B, and Spathulenol [38].

Organic fraction of mastic water obtained during the steam distillation of resin from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia indicated acceptable antifungal activity but moderate antibacterial effect. Among some of its major compounds, (±)-linalool and α-terpineol had the highest antimicrobial effect [33].

Essential oil from leaf and gum of P. atlantica showed acceptable antibacterial and antifungal activities [9092]. However, leaf ethanolic extract had no distinct antimicrobial activity [88].

A remarkable inhibitory activity of different extracts and essential oil from P. lentiscus leaves was observed against Salmonella typhimurium; additionally, essential oil showed significant inhibitory effects against S. enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus [86, 87].

As reported by Adams et al. [55], the leaves and twigs of P. atlantica and its active substance 3-methoxycarpachromene showed antiprotozoal activity against Plasmodium falciparum. P. atlantica var. kurdica gum controlled cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice infected with Leishmania major [93]. Extract from P. vera branch had significant inhibitory activity against Leishmania donovani and leaf extract inhibited Plasmodium falciparum without cytotoxicity on mammalian cells [94].

4.4. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activity

Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of five mentioned Pistacia species have been shown in Table 3.

P. terebinthus gall showed anti-inflammatory activity in different in vivo models of acute and chronic inflammation [95]. Masticadienonic acid (26), masticadienolic acid (27), and morolic acid (28), three triterpene isolated from P. terebinthus gall, seem to be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity [43]. Additionally, oleanonic acid (29) from the galls of P. terebinthus, reduced the production of leukotriene B4 from rat peritoneal leukocytes and showed antiedematous activity in mice [96]. Oleoresin and leaf extract from P. vera showed significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity [97].

Extract of the resin of P. lentiscus var. Chia and its isolated phytosterol tirucallol (31) showed anti-inflammatory activity on human aortic endothelial cells and had significant inhibitory activity on adhesion molecules expression in TNF-α-stimulated human aortic endothelial cells [98]. It was proposed that the anti-inflammatory effect of P. lentiscus var. chia gum may be related to inhibition of protein kinase C which leads to decrease in superoxide and H2O2 production by NADPH oxidase [99].

4.5. Effects on Gastrointestinal Disorders

One of the most important traditional uses of gums from Pistacia species is for management of gastrointestinal disorders. Moreover, there are several scientific studies that confirm this property [100102]. Resin of P. lentiscus significantly reduced the intensity of gastric mucosal damage induced by pyloric ligation, aspirin, phenylbutazone, reserpine, and restraint with cold stress via its antisecretory and cytoprotective activities [103]. In one double-blind placebo controlled trial, P. lentiscus gum improved the feeling of symptoms significantly in patients with functional dyspepsia [104]. Moreover, Pistacia species exerted significant antibacterial activity on Helicobacter pylori [15, 33]. Supplementation with P. lentiscus oil in experimental model of colitis delayed the onset and progression of acute colitis and led to decrease weight loss caused by the disease [105]. A polyherbal formula that contains P. lentiscus gum caused significant decrease in colonic damage and biochemical markers related to pathophysiology of IBS in rat model of colitis [106]. Adminstration of P. lentiscus var. chia resin to patients with established mild to moderate active crohn’s disease (CD) for 4 weeks caused significant reduction in CD activity index and plasma inflammatory mediators without any side effects and also as an immunomodulator resulted in significantly reduction in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and enhanced macrophage migration inhibitory factor in these patients [107, 108].

4.6. Antidiabetic Activity

Aqueous leaf extract from P. atlantica showed significant inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro [109, 110]. It demonstrated significant acute postprandial antihyperglycemic activity comparable to metformin and glipizide in starch-fed rats. It also improved glucose intolerance [110]. However, another study on this extract did not show significant hypoglycemic activity when tested in normoglycemic and streptozocin-induced hyperglycemic rats [109]. Administration of P. lentiscus var. chia gum to human subjects for 12 months caused significantly decrease in serum glucose level among male subjects. Serum glucose in women was not affected [111].

4.7. Antitumor Activity

Among mentioned species of Pistacia, P. lentiscus is the most investigated for antitumor activity (Table 3). P. lentiscus var. chia gum inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of human colorectal tumor cells in vitro [112]. The resin exerted the most cytotoxic effect against promyelocytic leukemia among 13 human cell types and also inhibited the natural apoptosis of oral polymorphonuclear leukocytes [76]. The gum demonstrated anticancer activity via delaying the growth of colorectal tumors developed from human colon cancer cells xenografted into mice [8]. It also increased maspin (a mammary serine protease inhibitor with tumor suppressive activity for prostate cancers) expression in responsive prostate cancer cells and inhibited cell proliferation and blocked the cell cycle progression [113, 114]. Essential oil of P. lentiscus demonstrated significant inhibition on tumor growth in immunocompetent mice without signs of toxicity, related to apoptosis induction, reduced neovascularization, and inhibiting chemokine expression [115]. In addition, it had antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on human leukemia cells and inhibited the release of vascular endothelial growth factor from these cells [116]. Despite many reports on antitumor activities of P. lentiscus, one in vivo study showed that the high dose of P. lentiscus gum promoted the preneoplastic lesions development in rat liver with increasing liver relative weight which proposed that desirable anticarcinogenic effects of mastic could be obtained at relatively low doses [117]. In one recent study, the current data on the anticancer activities of gum, oil, and extracts of P. lentiscus L. and its major constituent, have been reviewed comprehensively with special attention to the probable anticancer mechanisms [118].

The fruit extract of P. atlantica sub. kurdica showed growth inhibition in human colon carcinoma cells similar to Doxorubicin [119]. P. vera oleoresin demonstrated moderate cytotoxic effect against breast cancer cell line, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, cervix cancer cell line, and normal melanocytes [120].

4.8. Effects on Liver and Serum Biochemical Parameters

P. lentiscus leaf demonstrated significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats by reducing the level of bilirubin and activity of liver enzymes [121]. However, another study reported hepatic fibrosis, mild cholestasis, and depletion of reduced glutathione by long-term administration of aqueous leaf extract in healthy rats [122]. Administration of P. lentiscus var. chia gum for 18 months in healthy volunteers caused reduction in liver enzymes and exerted hypolipidemic effect [111]. Extracts from P. vera fruits have shown beneficial effects on HDL and LDL level in rabbit model of atherosclerosis [123]. Positive changes in lipid profile were recorded after three-week use of P. vera nuts in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. The decrease in triglyceride and LDL levels was not significant [124]. P. terebinthus fruit demonstrated hypolipidemic effect in hypercholesterolemic rabbits [125].

4.9. Effects on Atherosclerosis

More over than the antihyperlipidemic activity that described above, Pistacia species exerts their antiathesclerotic effects by direct activity on atherosclerotic lesions moreover than their antihyperlipidemic activity. Both methanolic and cyclohexane extracts from P. vera fruits have shown beneficial effects on HDL, LDL, and aortic intimal thickness in rabbit model of atherosclerosis. The methanolic extract additionally showed an antioxidant activity and remarkable decrease in aortic surface lesions [123]. P. terebinthus fruits inhibited the development of the atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic artery [125]. P. lentiscus resin that downregulated CD36 mRNA expression (as the oxLDL receptor in macrophages that play a pivotal role in atherosclerotic foam cell formation) resulted in antiatherogenic effects [126].

4.10. Anticholinesterase Activity

Aqueous extracts from P. atlantica and P. lentiscus leaves showed strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition [13]; additionally, both the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of P. atlantica leaf showed relatively weak AchE inhibitory activity [127]. However, one study showed that ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of various commercially terebinth coffee brands (an oily brown-coloured powder produced from the dried and roasted fruits of P. terebinthus) and the unprocessed fruits of P. terebinthus did not have inhibitory activity against AChE and tyrosinase, while they selectively inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at moderate levels [85].

5. Conclusion

In traditional Iranian medicine textbooks and papers, five species of Pistacia genus including P. vera, P. lentiscus, P. terebinthus, P. atlantica, and P. khinjuk had been introduced for treating the wide range of ailments. These species until now have been utilized in Iran by people for different nutritional and medicinal proposes. This review considered findings about phytochemical and pharmacological properties of these five species and presents comprehensive analysis of papers published since the year 2000. Ethnopharmacological data about these species may help us to know that many pharmacological aspects proposed nowadays for these species have been derived from traditional uses like antiseptic and antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive, antihepatotoxic, and anticancer activities and their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, there are several pharmacological activities discussed in traditional medicine such as diuretic, lithontripic, anti-tussive, antirheumatic, antiasthmatic, antihypertensive, and aphrodisiac activities which are not supported by any current scientific documents, and so, they could be considered for investigation by researchers.

Phytochemical studies provided evidence for traditional applications of these species. With respect to phytochemical assays, triterpenes found in the resin and monoterpens are the most abundant composition of the essential oil from different parts of these species. Essential oil constituents might be valuable chemotaxonomic marker to ascertain different Pistacia chemotypes. Considering the therapeutic effect of isolated components, it can be concluded that terpenoids including mono, di-, and triterpenoids are associated with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. High amount of natural phenols and flavonoids is related to potent antioxidant and anticancer activities.

Review on current researches about the genus Pistacia L. highlighting pharmacological studies on crude plant parts, extracts, and some pure metabolites has provided scientific evidence for traditional uses and has revealed this genus to be a valuable source for medicinally important molecules.

So many studies were carried out on antioxidant activity of this genus considering their flavonoids, anthocyanins, and other phenolic compounds as preventive factors against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. P. lentiscus is the most studied species for antioxidant effects followed by P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus and P. khinjuk.

Most of the studies showed antimicrobial activity of these species especially P. lentiscus on a wide range of microorganisms including Gram-positive and -negative, aerobic and aerobic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The findings indicated that α-pinene, verbenone, R-terpineol, linalool, carvacrol and flavones are major compounds related to antibacrial activity.

Abbreviations

ABTS:2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic  acid)
ALP:Alkalin  ephosphatase
ALT:Alanine  aminotransferase
AST:Aspartate  aminotransferase
B(a)p:Benzo(a)pyrene
BHA:Butylated  hydroxyanisole
BHT:Butylated  hydroxytoluene
DMPD:N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine
DPPH:2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
EC50:Half  maximal  effective  concentration
EDTA:Ethylenediaminetetraacetic  acid
EPP:Ethyl  phenylpropiolate
FRAP:Ferric  reducing  antioxidant  power
Gamma-GT:Gamma-glytamyl  transpeptidase
IC50:The  half  maximal  inhibitory  concentration
LOX:Lipoxygenase
MBC:Minimum  Bactericidal  Concentration
MDA:Malonaldehyde
MIC:Minimum  inhibitory  Concentration
NF-kB:Nuclear  factor  kappa-light-chain-enhancerof  activated  B  cells
OxLDL:Oxidized  low  density  lipoprotein
PLA2:Phospholipase  A2
SGOT:Serum  glutamic  oxaloacetic  transaminase
SGPT:Serum  glutamic-pyruvic  transaminase
SOD:Superoxide  dismutase
TBARS:Thiobarbituric  acid  reactive  substances
TBHQ:Tertiary  Butyl  hydroquinone
TPA:12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

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