Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 792973, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/792973
Research Article

Mechanical and Structural Properties of Fluorine-Ion-Implanted Boron Suboxide

1DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
2School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
3National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
4Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, Private Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 0003, Malawi
5Nano Centre, Polymer Nanotechnology Center & Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandalur, Chennai-600048, India
6School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
7Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Winterbergstraβe 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany

Received 30 April 2011; Revised 18 September 2011; Accepted 19 September 2011

Academic Editor: W. Ensinger

Copyright © 2012 Ronald Machaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. J. Kirkby and R. P. Webb, “Ion Implanted Nanostructures,” in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, H. S. Nalwa, Ed., vol. 4, pp. 1–11, American Scientific Publishers, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. I. Jain and G. Agarwal, “Ion beam induced surface and interface engineering,” Surface Science Reports, vol. 66, no. 3-4, pp. 77–172, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. L. Stepanov, “Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in dielectric matrix by ion implantation: a review,” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 1–29, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. F. Prins, “Modification, doping and devices in implanted diamond,” in Properties of Natuaral and Synthetic Diamong, chapter 8, pp. 301–341, Academic Press Limited, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  5. J. Ghatak, B. Satpati, M. Umananda et al., “Characterization of ion beam induced nanostructures,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 244, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. K. Avasthi and J. C. Pivin, “Ion beam for synthesis and modification of nanostructures,” Current Science, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 780–792, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Hosono and H. Kawazoe, “Approach to novel crystalline and amorphous oxide materials for optoelectronics by ion implantation,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 39–45, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Shen, X. Li, Z. Wang et al., “Fabrication and thermal evolution of nanoparticles in SiO2 by Zn ion implantation,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 311, no. 21, pp. 4605–4609, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. MacHaka, R. M. Erasmus, and T. E. Derry, “Formation of cBN nanocrystals by He+ implantation into hBN,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1131–1134, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. D. Desnica-Frankovi, K. Furi, U. V. Desnica, M. C. Ridgway, and C. J. Glover, “Structural modifications in amorphous Ge produced by ion implantation,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 178, no. 1–4, pp. 192–195, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. W. H. Oates, L. Ryves, F. A. Burgmann et al., “Ion implantation induced phase transformation in carbon and boron nitride thin films,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1395–1401, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Komarov, L. Vlasukova, W. Wesch et al., “Formation of InAs nanocrystals in Si by high-fluence ion implantation,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 266, no. 16, pp. 3557–3564, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. I. Oñate, F. Alonso, and A. García, “Improvement of tribological properties by ion implantation,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 317, no. 1-2, pp. 471–476, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Machaka, T. E. Derry, and I. Sigalas, “Nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 528, no. 18, pp. 5778–5783, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Herrmann, H. J. Kleebe, J. Raethel et al., “Field-assisted densification of superhard B6O materials with Y2O3/Al2O3 addition,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 2368–2372, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Herrmann, J. Raethel, A. Bales, K. Sempf, I. Sigalas, and M. Hoehn, “Liquid phase assisted densification of superhard B6O materials,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2611–2617, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. O. T. Johnson, I. Sigalas, E. N. Ogunmuyiwa, H. J. Kleebe, M. M. Müller, and M. Herrmann, “Boron suboxide materials with Co sintering additives,” Ceramics International, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1767–1771, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Andrews, M. Herrmann, T. C. Shabalala, and I. Sigalas, “Liquid phase assisted hot pressing of boron suboxide-materials,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1613–1621, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Andrews, Development of boron suboxide composites with improved toughness, Ph.D. thesis, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand0, 2009.
  20. C. S. Freemantle, The wear studies of boron suboxide based cutting tool materials in machining applications, M.S. thesis, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, 2010.
  21. R. Machaka, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Manikandan, T. E. Derry, and I. Sigalas, “Raman spectrum of hot-pressed boron suboxide,” Advanced Materials Letters, vol. 2, p. 68, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. J. Lowther, Personal Communication, 2009.
  23. J. F. Prins, “Ion-implanted structures and doped layers in diamond,” Materials Science Reports, vol. 7, no. 7-8, pp. 271–364, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Ziegler, SRIM2010 (Software package), 2010, http://www.srim.org/.
  25. P. Klapetek, D. Necas, and C. Anderson, Gwyddion v2.24 (Software package), 2010, http://gwyddion.net/.
  26. R. Machaka, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Manikandan, T. E. Derry, and I. Sigalas, “Structural transformation in ultrahard B6O induced by F-ion implantation studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Unpublished.
  27. O. T. Johnson, Improvement on the mechanical properties of boron suboxide (B60) based composites using other compounds as second phase, M.S. thesis, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, 2009.
  28. O. T. Johnson, I. Sigalas, and M. Herrmann, “Microstructure and interfacial reactions between B6O and (Ni, Co) couples,” Ceramics International, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 2401–2406, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Z. Wang, Y. Zhao, P. Lazor, H. Annersten, and S. K. Saxena, “In situ pressure Raman spectroscopy and mechanical stability of superhard boron suboxide,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 86, no. 4, Article ID 041911, pp. 1–41911, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Werheit and U. Kuhlmann, “FTIR and FT Raman spectra of B6O,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 260–263, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Yu, Y. Ji, T. Li et al., “Nanofilms with clusters of boron suboxide and their infrared absorption,” Solid State Communications, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 307–311, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. L. Solozhenko, O. O. Kurakevych, and P. Bouvier, “First and second-order Raman scattering of B6O,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1078–1081, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. S. R. Rao, S. Sundaram, R. L. Schmidt, and J. Comas, “Study of ion-implantation damage in GaAs:Be and InP:Be using Raman scattering,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1808–1815, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. S. Kumar, M. A. Khadar, S. K. Dhara, T. R. Ravindran, and K. G. M. Nair, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of ZnS nanoparticles implanted with Cu+ ions,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 251, no. 2, pp. 435–440, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. K. Arora, M. Rajalakshmi, T. R. Ravindran, and V. Sivasubramanian, “Raman spectroscopy of optical phonon confinement in nanostructured materials,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 604–617, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Nastasi and J. W. Mayer, Ion Implantation and Synthesis of Materials, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2006.
  37. W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “Improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1564–1580, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: advances in understanding and refinements to methodology,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. M. Pharr and A. Bolshakov, “Understanding nanoindentation unloading curves,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 2660–2671, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. X. Jiao, H. Jin, F. Liu et al., “Synthesis of boron suboxide (B6O) with ball milled boron oxide (B2O3) under lower pressure and temperature,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 183, no. 7, pp. 1697–1703, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. R. Jian, G. J. Chen, and J. Y. Juang, “Nanoindentation-induced phase transformation in (1 1 0)-oriented Si single-crystals,” Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, vol. 14, no. 3-4, pp. 69–74, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. A. Schuh, “Nanoindentation studies of materials,” Materials Today, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 32–40, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. G. Wang, B. W. Choi, T. G. Nieh, and C. T. Liu, “Crystallization and nanoindentation behavior of a bulk Zr-Al-Ti-Cu-Ni amorphous alloy,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 798–807, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. Laidania, A. Miotello, and J. Perrière, “Chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of CNx-films produced by reactive sputtering and N+-implantation in carbon films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 273–284, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Leyland and A. Matthews, “On the significance of the H/E ratio in wear control: a nanocomposite coating approach to optimised tribological behaviour,” Wear, vol. 246, no. 1-2, pp. 1–11, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Lemoine, J. P. Quinn, P. Maguire, and J. A. McLaughlin, “Comparing hardness and wear data for tetrahedral amorphous carbon and hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films,” Wear, vol. 257, no. 5-6, pp. 509–522, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Oberle, “Properties influencing the wear of metals,” Journal of Metrologia, vol. 3, p. 438, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  48. J. Gong, J. Wu, and Z. Guan, “Analysis of the indentation size effect on the apparent hardness for ceramics,” Materials Letters, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 197–201, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Gong, H. Miao, and Z. Peng, “A new function for the description of the nanoindentation unloading data,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 93–97, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. O. Şahin, O. Uzun, U. Kölemen, and N. Uçar, “Mechanical characterization for β-Sn single crystals using nanoindentation tests,” Materials Characterization, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 427–434, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. O. Sahin, O. Uzun, M. Sopicka-Lizer, H. Gocmez, and U. Kölemen, “Dynamic hardness and elastic modulus calculation of porous SiAlON ceramics using depth-sensing indentation technique,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1235–1242, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Sangwal, “On the reverse indentation size effect and microhardness measurement of solids,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 145–152, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Li and R. C. Bradt, “The indentation load/size effect and the measurement of the hardness of vitreous silica,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 146, pp. 197–212, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Fischer-Cripps, Nanoindentation, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2004.
  55. J. Gong, H. Miao, and Z. Peng, “Analysis of the nanoindentation data measured with a Berkovich indenter for brittle materials: effect of the residual contact stress,” Acta Materialia, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 785–793, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Gong, H. Miao, and Z. Peng, “On the contact area for nanoindentation tests with Berkovich indenter: case study on soda-lime glass,” Materials Letters, vol. 58, no. 7-8, pp. 1349–1353, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. D. Bouzakis and N. Michailidis, “Indenter surface area and hardness determination by means of a FEM-supported simulation of nanoindentation,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 494, no. 1-2, pp. 155–160, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. Janakiraman and F. Aldinger, “Indentation analysis of elastic and plastic deformation of precursor-derived Si-C-N ceramics,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 775–785, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. B. King, “Elastic analysis of some punch problems for a layered medium,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1657–1664, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. B. Mott, Microindentation Hardness Testing, Butterworths, London, UK, 1956.
  61. D. L. Joslin and W. C. Oliver, “New method for analyzing data from continuos depth-sensing microindentation tests,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 123–126, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  62. X. Y. Zhou, Z. D. Jiang, H. R. Wang, and Q. Zhu, “A method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft metallic thin films based on nanoindentation continuous stiffness measurement technique,” Journal of Physics, vol. 48, no. 1, article 204, pp. 1096–1101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. H. Lee, M. B. Lewis, P. J. Blau, and L. K. Mansur, “Improved surface properties of polymer materials by multiple ion beam treatment,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 610–628, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus