Techno-Pedagogical Skills for 21st Century Digital Classrooms: An Extensive Literature Review
Techno-pedagogical ability is a way and reasonable value education available to everyone. Indeed, although in the past it has been found that there are many benefits to using innovation in the classroom environment, there are still obstacles or experiences related to the use of innovation. The literature review was utilized to gather and choose the papers for this research. This article investigates the techno-pedagogical skills requirements of the science and art teachers of the Sukkur State Government College. In this paper, literature is collected from different real sites, such as Google, Google Scholar, Science Direct (Elsevier), Sage, Springer, Emerald, Taylor & Francis, and Eric databases. Ten themes emerged from the literature to analyze the techno-pedagogical skills of science and art educators and provide suggestions and solutions for improving educational institutions. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research papers are all included in this study. This research also identified the knowledge gap and methodological and implication gap in this research article as per the need for 21st Century Digital Classrooms. The results show that there is no significant difference in techno-pedagogical skills between science teachers and art teachers who use technology in teaching. This is because of the epidemic. Talking about the current scourge, COVID-19 has transformed traditional courses into digitization through ICT integration. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is seen as a tool that can help schools adapt to the transition from industry to information. It is also considered as a tool to provide, support, and strengthen educational reforms in accordance with the educational needs of the information society.
The educational framework is currently an observer of the worldview. It has changed from the old-fashioned chalk and dialogue teaching strategies to the digitalization of educational methods through specialized tools. It believes that such a change is not because it expands the possibilities of lecturers, but because it expands the database of undergraduate students so that they are competitive on the international stage. In today's world, most people must continuously improve their abilities and information levels to encounter the challenges of lifestyle . The current era of the 21st century is the data and innovation (IT) time. Each viewpoint of life has got to be synonymous with science and advancement. All over the world, information in all ranges is making tremendous advances. Information and innovation are right now being utilized within the field of education to create effective and interesting instruction and preparation for both understudies and teachers . The term “technology” within the 21st century is a critical issue in many fields, including instruction. This is since innovation has become the interstate information development in numerous countries. Nowadays, the application of technology has experienced progress and has changed our social designs that totally alter the way people think, work, and live. As a component of this, schools and other instructive teaching approaches ought to plan understudies to live in an “information society” to consider ICT support in their instructive programs . To meet the requirements of the 21st century, people got to do more than the center issues. They ought to get how to utilize their knowledge and capacities by considering fundamentally, applying the information to modern conditions, breaking down information, creating groundbreaking considerations, communicating, working together, managing with issues, and making choices. These capabilities give both versatility and security in a period of steady alters . “Technology could be a crucial portion of teaching today’s students and it is utilized at whatever point conceivable within the classroom so that it moves forward the large learning environment.” Students will also get acquainted with innovation since they will utilize it in the future. A great educator not only provides proper ways for students to plan successfully but also motivates them to utilize their abilities in developing their country . This is often the crossover strategy of instructing in which ICT is being utilized for instructing learning circumstances . Pedagogical method eludes “Science and Languages of Teaching”. Instruction innovation gives planning learning circumstances, holding the goals of education and learning that bring the finest practices/means of enlightening which impact learning . The combination of both the words “techno” and “pedagogy” implies weaving the innovations into the instructing learning preparation. It needs to consciously recognize the intervening learning environment in order to simplify and clarify the data transmission process to the greatest extent . Technical pedagogy requires teachers to use online guidance technologies/tools, such as software-driven lesson plans, Web-based guidance, computer-mediated communication, intelligence mapping and recording organization, imaging innovation, realistic visualization of information, collaborative learning, and audio promotion/video podcasting and computerized substance management . Computers are coming quickly into the classroom at each level of expression and science . No one can deny the effect that innovation proceeds to have on nearly every perspective of our day-to-day lives, nor the speed with which we receive modern improvements. The portable phone is omnipresent and not fair for any time anyplace voice communication. Broadband information network brings the Web and our individual and commerce communications . GPS can give us topographical directions. A camera gives us a video as well as picture and sound recording capability and nearby capacity that proceeds to urge ever-bigger and ever-cheaper innovation things for students’ accomplishment . Different visual tools/apps speaking to thoughts and ideas in graphical or pictorial ways make comprehension, investigation, blend, assessment, and era of new shapes easy. Contrary to direct content, intellect mapping and information realistic and imaging devices offer assistance structure information along the line of the cognitive handle . Nowadays, techno-pedagogical competency is exceptionally much required for instructors in teaching and learning handle because it encourages successful instructing and learning. The techno-pedagogical competency is nothing but the capacity of the instructors to form utilization of technology effectively in instructing. The instructors create techno-pedagogical competencies; then, they may attempt to create utilization of this regularly in educating, and it will, in turn, make the learning preparation simple and successful. In techno-pedagogy, there are three ranges of information, specifically, content, pedagogy, and technology. Content is the subject matter that is to be instructed. Technology envelops advanced innovations such as computers, Web, computerized videos, and commonplace innovations counting overhead projectors, writing boards, and books. Pedagogy portrays the collected practices, forms, procedures, methods, and strategies of instructing and learning. It moreover incorporates information of approximately the points of instruction, evaluation, and understudy learning . This article tends to analyze the techno-pedagogical skills of digital classrooms in the 21st century and identify its gaps.
In today's situation, educators who use innovation in teaching and learning play a vital role in terms of digitalization in education. Technology has improved learning, making teaching and learning more curious and interactive. Therefore, it is necessary to further expand the lecturer's technical teaching ability so that the technical teaching method has a positive attitude. Therefore, in this review paper, the focus is on the techno-pedagogical skills for 21st century educators. The method used in the literature review process is a narrative review because it is a literature review that can examine in detail the structure and content of the story and its relationship with psychological, sociological, or historical reference systems. Narrative inquiry is first of all the perspective of people experiencing phenomena and the method of exploring experience narratively. Narrative methods are ideal for studying interpersonal and intrapersonal processes.
3. Selection Process and Criteria for Inclusion
The articles are sorted according to techno-pedagogical skills and related topics and terminology among science and art teachers (Table 1). The solicitation of articles is based on recent years, no longer going back, in order to minimize the number of articles and simplify the review process. Table 2 lists the topics identified in all selected studies and the number of articles.
3.1. Techno-Pedagogical Techniques in Teaching and Learning
The technical teaching methods mentioned by most lecturers are solved online except for the computer and stage connected to the Internet, which hardly contains any other equipment. Some of them utilize a stage that includes a course management framework, alternative presentations, video conferencing, and online assessment equipment. Crucially, they must make use of smart classroom offices, reusable material objects, peer-to-peer collaboration, advanced libraries, e-books, and other assistive virtual technologies to do this based on the Web to achieve convincing online delivery of guidance and course structure . Often, the potential of advanced innovation is largely underutilized. Advanced innovation provides free online guidance through a large number of open online courses. Due to the development of e-learning devices, printed learning structures are being widely digitized. Many research institutions store their learning structures in smartphones, iPods, iPhones, or tablets . Online platforms and portals encourage learning from anywhere in the world. In addition, social media frameworks such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and WhatsApp allow a wide range of offices to be organized for peer-to-peer acceptable learning and collaborative guidance . By combining inspiring calculations, instruction, information collection, utilization of data records, intellectual change, instructional clarification, conceptualization, music, and the World Wide Web (www), format-based teaching and learning provide unique and fascinating ways to form learning. The cycle is more substantial and basic . Information and communication innovations personalize learning through the online stage and go beyond the time constraints of any particular faculty member, organizing space and mentoring. Technology-assisted teaching with this adaptability and choice ability attracts young people. Many of them tend to flip classrooms, self-designed spaces, and more dynamic learning experiences, apply concepts and opportunities for testing, and creatively include them in themes. They are looking for better information acquisition methods to provide better learning participation. In any case, contrary to these new generations of research, teachers in wealthy countries have practically no energy to use innovation in their classrooms, even though they keep in touch with the network through chips, sensors, and secondary processors. Technology teaching methods are changing with each passing day, and various unused devices and applications are usually researched. Artificial intelligence (AI) innovations have gradually been applied in various cognitive tasks and may have been more than ten years old. Artificial intelligence innovation is developing in the direction of deeper learning, thinking, and decision-making based on massive data analysis plans. It has the ability to plan smart information transmission learner interface gadgets when personalized customers are closed. By creating client interfaces, past applications and devices reacted to touches, clicks, and swipes; AI currently enhances operational capabilities through physical activity, movement, physical development, facial expressions, and text . Augmented reality (AR) is a computerized photographic innovation technology. When combined with AI, virtual objects and real objects can coexist to achieve a rare visual experience. The combination of AR and AI enables this surprising participation through 3D activities, modeling, and reenactment. Using wearable audio and video devices to exceed the limits of the screen, people will participate in AR curiosity and get an immersive feeling .
3.2. Importance of Techno-Pedagogical Skill for a Classroom Teacher
Technology promotes effective, user-centric, interdisciplinary, self-paced real-time teaching. It meets the needs of individual learners and is applicable to all learning methods. Therefore, it is widely used for teaching purposes in the education sector. By doing so, it encourages students to develop higher-level thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, application, and creation, which are very important in today's competitive world. Teachers today must understand ICT and its application in the teaching process. They should know how to successfully incorporate the right type of ICT into their subject while planning courses and providing learning experiences. The selected technology assets should complement educators' information and help learners develop information . Technical teaching capabilities enable classroom educators to teach topics more effectively by focusing on personal needs. This, in turn, enables the learner to fully grasp the concepts in a way that better maintains the learned concepts. Mastering the level of professional teaching will make teaching enjoyable because it will reduce the burden on teachers and enable students to remember more deeply . It helps teachers to engage students in self-study because this is an important skill that all students should have today. There are many e-learning resources, and teachers with solid technical teaching skills can motivate and help students choose comprehensive reading materials using e-resources. Teachers can also encourage students who are unable to continue their education for obvious or personal reasons to continue their education through the remote e-learning model. Therefore, in summary, we can say that teachers should update technical teaching skills to meet the needs of today’s generation of learners and cultivate technical capabilities that depend on citizens. Bala and Imlikokila  pointed out that teachers are those who fearlessly choose to work selflessly for masculinity. Teachers can control the transformation of students into the most beneficial citizens. And because demonstration teaching revolves around innovation and learning upgrades, technical teaching capabilities enable teachers to choose the correct teaching methods. In addition to satisfactory teaching materials for effective teaching, there will also be differences. In addition, it also provides help for the professional development of teachers, requires investigation of relevant exercises in the field of technical teaching, publicly opposes the use of innovation in teaching, and begins to improve their technical teaching capabilities.
3.3. Influence of Techno-Pedagogy through TPACK (Technology Pedagogy and Content Knowledge) Model
Nowadays, teachers are in great need of technical teaching ability in guiding and preparing for learning because it encourages feasible education and learning. Technical teaching ability is nothing more than a teacher's ability to effectively use creative ability in teaching. At that time, teachers can build technical teaching ability; they can try to use this ability frequently in teaching, which in turn will make the learning process basic and feasible. In technical pedagogy, information includes three areas, in particular, substance, guidance method, and innovation.(i)The content is the topic to be directed(ii)Technology includes advanced innovative technologies such as computers, the Web, advanced video and computing projectors, writing pads, and ordinary advances in books(iii)Pedagogy describes the collected disciplines, forms, techniques, strategies, and instruction and learning strategies. In addition, it contains information about teaching, assessment, and student learning 
Innovative integration methods in instructive teaching innovative teaching methods and material information (TPACK) are essentially technology-centric (Figure 1). The integration of technology in teacher teaching is largely influenced by this method. The technical model refers to a model that enables lecturers to almost use innovation to ensure information and talents, while the academic model refers to a model in which teachers connect their innovative information with their educational information during education. The TPACK exhibition  is an educational model that incorporates innovation into teaching, that is, “innovative academic material information”. The TPACK presentation is constructed by extending and innovating Shulman  Academic Substantive Information (PCK) . Consider the fact that, at the intersection of substance and teaching methods, the lecturer’s information is extraordinary information, so technology should not be regarded as an isolated technology but as one of the inputs that shape this information. This modern term is derived from PCK and is described as innovative academic substantive information and is seen as establishing a fascinating education system that benefits from innovation .
TPACK combines the introduction of the concept of using technology: information about the useful use of innovation to guide substance, information about complex or encouraging learning concepts, and information about ways that innovation can help to help understand troublesome topics and relevant information and innovate the information that is used. Modern data were incorporated into current data to create unused epistemology or to cultivate existing data around students’ display information and epistemology . The TPACK system is the complex exchange of three essential shapes of information: content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and technology knowledge (TK). The TPACK approach goes past seeing these three information bases in segregation. The TPACK system goes advance by emphasizing the sorts of information that lie at the convergences between three essential shapes: pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) .
3.4. Teacher Preparation and Professional Development through TPCK Model
Teachers can only appear in society if they are truly critical. Their role in teaching improvement is the foundation of basic education, especially in the Third Creative Republic. One of the most important problems facing the educational structure is the need for qualified teachers, who need to be knowledgeable or adapt to data innovation practices . Beck and Wynn  described a continuous process of integrating technology into the teacher scheduling plan through a continuum. On the one hand, they concluded that the curriculum may be isolated from the educator's plan, and on the other hand, they concluded that innovation is the coordination of the entire plan. Niess  examined the improvement of TPCK in a plan that aligns education and learning with innovation through science and mathematics plans. Margerum-Leys and Marx  studied the impact of field training on broadening the improvement of TPCK by studying the importance of under-educated positions. They believe that, from a constructivist point of view, “the opportunity to truly meet is a key condition for learning” (, p.434). Other analysts, including Pierson , Mishra and Koehler , and Zhao , gave more support and pointed out the importance of the development of TPCK as a key message to guide specific topics, coordinate its improvements in the teaching and learning process, and coordinate internal improvements in the creation of thematic information. The vision of realizing the curriculum is that, through intelligent training, it is possible to imagine the progress of teaching. Regarding preemployment planning, although there are many problems, content courses, strategy courses, evaluation courses, and training courses should still be used to clarify the basic conditions for TPCK progress and to formulate rules for coordinating innovation and TPCK progress. TPCK is an important information body used to guide mathematics and is important for coordinating its progress in education and learning courses and in the course coordinated when creating scientific information. For preemployment training programs, more inquiries are needed to clarify the basic conditions for advancing TPCK, and in material courses, strategy courses, assessment courses, and teaching methods courses, formulating rules that combine innovation and science education is like the same in student guidance .
3.5. Integration of TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) in Teaching and Learning
Based on Ajzen and Fishbein , Davis’s  expected activity hypothesis technology acceptance model is TAM, in anticipation of the use of a certain technology. The technology acceptance model (TAM) is an information framework theory that can model how users recognize and utilize innovation. The real use of the framework is the end of the personal use of innovation. Deliberate behavior may lead to personal use of the technology. According to Davis and Venkatesh , TAM can be used as a system to explore how and when customers accept continuous innovation. TAM has proven to be effective in clarifying the behavior of users using computer innovation . This suggests that there seems to be a relationship between ease of use (PEU), perceived usefulness (PU), attitude to use (AT), and purposeful use of technology (BI) . TAM uses PU (perceived usefulness) and PEOU (perceived ease of use) to predict BI (behavioral intention), and BI is considered to be a good indicator of actual future use (Figure 2). TAM is the most widely used and well-known program, which recognizes various innovations to a certain extent [37, 38]. It is effectively linked with many advanced technologies such as social media, virtual learning situations , portable and advanced libraries, learning analysis visualization, and gamification and many societies . PU will have a significant impact on BI, but it is usually found that PEOU is affected by the circuit of PU, and its coordination impact on BI has never existed to be higher. Many extensions and changes to TAM have been proposed, and the first creator counted them .
Venkatesh et al.  interpret UTAUT by combining eight models to illustrate the impact of execution expectations on behavior (characterizing the degree to which people accept that the use of the framework will help them to complete the work execution), hope (characterized by the ease with which the frame is used), social impact (characterized by the degree to which a person believes that the key others accept that he or she should use the unused frame), encouragement conditions a person accepts (characterized by the degree of an organization’s professional foundation to support the use of the framework), and deliberate behavior (characterized by the degree of a person’s deliberate quality of performing a particular behavior). The creator analyzed TAM and its competitive predictive model and proposed implementation expectations, exerting hope, social influence, and encouraging conditions (determined by gender, age, experience and use of BI, and the voluntary nature of use). UTAUT combined the “confirmation hypothesis” and “utilization of innovation hypothesis”, which was later enlarged to UTAUT 2, where Venkatesh et al.  published a paper including pleasure-seeking inspiration, cost respect, and propensity as influencing factors (see Figure 3). Although UTAUT 2 has received more than 3,000 citations in Google Researcher , its unique application lies in foreseeing the use of buyer innovation. Therefore, the respect for calculating the cost is not suitable for this idea, because advanced tools are available to all industries for free. In addition, because UTAUT 2 has seven components and three arbiters that affect BI, more factors are considered, but it provides much more information functions than TAM. TAM's high-level information control and weakness played a role in TAM, and it is still a very convincing strategy for measuring innovation confirmation .
Considering that a calculation in UTAUT 2 does not apply to our setting, because the data of so many variables for four computerized devices twice may have the opposite effect on the benefits under consideration, without giving too much many additional descriptive controls, so we chose to implement the TAM model .
3.6. Association among Techno-Pedagogical Skills and Teachers’ Performance
Techno-pedagogical skills are characterized by the ability to use ICT in an academic environment, which combines the ability to learn through ICTs, plan information, execute code procedures, and evaluate. The use of technology in education is considered to be a general modern teaching method that coordinates innovation into educational modules. In the method of integrating these technologies into educational modules, the most focused teachers encountered some obstacles when trying to coordinate innovations into their educational modules. Many school districts are promoting the progress of teaching at all levels. Later, it was believed that the effective implementation of teaching innovation usually depends on the mental state of teachers. Many studies have pointed out that teachers’ attitudes or beliefs are one of the few key human variables, including a significant impact on the use of technical teaching methods and classroom innovation. In terms of selecting techniques, the teacher’s behavior may be the main enabling/disabling character. Lecturers who have a positive attitude toward innovation will feel more at ease, and when using it, they will often not participate in innovation education. After preparation for the use of technology, teachers' negative behavior toward innovation has changed . Sezer  further considered the ability of technical teaching methods with different components overseas. After checking all the factors related to technical teaching ability, we found that technical education ability is very suitable for science and science teaching. The educator feels upset and focused on the spirit and attends classes with the help of technical learning ability. The ability to learn technology teaching will make education and learning work enjoyable because it will reduce the burden on faculty and enable researchers to study the information space more deeply . Every teacher should know how to successfully use technology, pedagogy, and subject area content in their daily classroom teaching. Obviously, it is not enough to just present the technology to the instructional handle. Technology integration must be guaranteed because innovation itself will not bring about change. Perhaps, this is the way teachers coordinate technology, which may bring about changes in teaching preparation. For teachers, to be finally familiar with the use of educational technology means to get rid of the trivial ability of the latest tools in order to understand the complex network of users, technologies, practices, and tools. Teachers must play their role in a technology-oriented classroom . Technical teaching content information may be a collaborative and intuitive system for analysts and analysts seeking to clarify the interaction between innovations and teaching methods. To contribute to modern technology and hybrid technology in education requires professional and theoretical abilities. Education is carried out in a modern online learning environment, in which instructors and proficient lecturers will research innovation, learn professional abilities, evaluate the rationality of different progress in their learning situation, and formulate imaginative and profitable technology that integrates innovation into a coherent teaching method . The center is dedicated to cultivating professional talents and basic thinking skills, which are critical to continuing to use the latest innovations in the classroom. Unused progress will lead to an unused open learning environment in which part of the teaching content can be transferred from educator-centered to under-learned places. Lecturers changed from sources of data and heroes to researchers and collaborators .
3.7. Introducing Techno-Pedagogy in the Classrooms as a New Pedagogy
The techno-pedagogical method may be the key choice factor of the metateaching cross-method. In the past two decades, the issue of improving technical teaching ability has been considered in the higher teaching framework in the world. The use of technical teaching ability can eliminate some obstacles that lead to poor achievement, insufficient learning, and instructional avoidance. Although the use of innovation in schools has changed, it can actually be divided into three categories: innovations in guiding plans, innovations in guiding communication, and innovations as learning tools. Teachers’ proficient use of innovation includes arranging different classroom exercises, for example, planning the instructional structure, communicating or collaborating with peers, research subjects, and their guardians, finding high-level assets, and developing lesson plans . When technology is used to instruct transportation, instructors or professionals can use it. Teachers can display teaching content through a projector or use computer-assisted learning applications (such as exercises and exercises, guided exercises, and entertainment activities) for learning. Innovation as a device includes the underutilization of basic computer program applications to enhance its ability to clarify problems, produce projects, or exchange and share opinions with each other . The illustration application includes word preparation, introduction, database, spreadsheet, Web 2.0 installation, and concept mapping. As long as it is called innovative use under certain circumstances, innovative integration is considered to consist of any one of these three types of computer use, because it is used for or supports classroom teaching . As mentioned above, the technical integration query has distinguished some basic elements, which are considered to be essential to complete feasible innovation integration, such as the characteristics of educators, opportunities for innovation, and support. In any case, these factors have been examined from other factors or the school environment where technology integration occurs . It is found that the computer ability of teachers is one of the most important key factors affecting their innovative integration. The interesting point of this discovery is that almost all of its impact on innovation integration comes from backhand effects. The teacher's computer ability has a major impact on the preparation and beliefs of educators, which in turn affects the integration of innovation . The sufficient improvement of teachers should provide help for teachers and help them acquire innovative ability and ability. The most important thing is that there should be proficiency progress and knowledge of how to innovate to improve the lack of learning and how to use innovation in various central material areas . In addition, technologies that are believed to be able to successfully change teacher beliefs (such as personal experience and substitution experience) should become a major component of technology integration efforts . Technology has developed into all aspects of human movement, including teaching. It has completely changed the face of education and guidance and has brought almost unattainable changes in the way of information sharing. Teacher teaching occupies a pivotal position and plays an important role in the victory of any education system. Education teachers are the top academic and proficient talents in the instructional pyramid. They have shaped long-term faculty. Therefore, the responsibility of the quality of faculty lies with the faculty themselves . Learning management systems (LMSs) such as blackboards are also provided to screen and systemize education and learning forms. The LMS computer program is promoted by schools and colleges and aims to help teachers and students strengthen substantive content and achieve feasible communication through discussion forums, video conferences, emails, and statements. The formulation of computer programs has changed the traditional mode of interaction between students and teachers . In addition, LMS also provides assistance to formulate, design, and monitor the preparation for learning in the classroom. They also provide assistance in the capacity and restoration of the address and guidelines structure through audio and recording and indeed contribute to the evaluation and evaluation . In addition to LMS, there are offline course management frameworks (CMSs), which can be run in classrooms without network offices. Citing an example of CALL Workbench, it can use or not use the network in the classroom. It is highly adaptable and user-friendly and can connect two or more computers (educators and students) just like using electronic communication tools. The program runs through the Web Journeywork framework based on the CALL phase. This may be a case of a mix of conventional and advanced Web-based environments. Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is another innovative medium, including chats, meetings, conversation gatherings, emails, and writing notifications, which can be used to enable students to communicate with their peers around the world .
3.8. Implementation of Techno-Pedagogy in Arts Classroom
Art education can be a tool used by a person for precise thoughts, emotions, feelings, and reactions to the clear and hidden things in the surrounding environment. Like other educational disciplines, art can shape personal lives and make them unique, thereby gaining social status and improving life efficiency. It improves the aesthetics, psychology, and otherworldly perspectives of life and makes a difference in coordinating identities . Subsequently, the approach of innovation can create the quality of learning and participation. In any case, the art direction of the midway school is divided into three main exercises: drawing, portrayal, and form. Each part requires unique assets, instructions, and materials. In expansion, art books are usually expensive for teachers/students, and it is difficult to find the right assets. In addition, in the event of network communication between art teachers, they may borrow books and other assets from each other at any time. Art is a subject based on theory and practice. In this way, the use of technology will include the value of the curriculum and ensure that educators use a variety of strategies to explain the topic. The accessibility of computers in handicraft classrooms can help instructors to arrange courses and provide unused methods for unfinished learning activities that have not been routinely described in the classroom environment . In addition, some thinkers call for the use of coordinated techniques in language teaching to revitalize educational practice. Kajder  stipulates the use of hypermedia because it provides a more realistic learning environment for universities. He suggested that by focusing on innovative learning rather than learning technology, listening and viewing can be combined well. He encouraged that, with the help of hypermedia, mixed media devices will eventually be more attractive for dialect learning tasks. Under another consideration, Ahmad  studied the response of EFL students to the use of progress and its impact on the stress plan of individual English words. Thinkers discovered that jargon teaching is not a tech-savvy person. Therefore, they emphasized the centrality of teachers’ mindfulness and the reasonable realization of innovation in the dialect classroom in their surrounding thoughts. In addition, Mwakapina et al.  considered the effect of using the WhatsApp application to teach English as an instant dialect. Research has found that using this application can increase the number of intellectuals in the course. It is precise; as a result, some educators do not participate carefully due to the need to adapt to ICT skills. Thinking point-by-point about education, I found that it was troublesome to change the WhatsApp application in sync with their lesson plans. Others believe that this supports the integration of WhatsApp in L2 learning . The development and utilization considered can help overcome many problems in this learning environment and stimulate the energy needed in this field. In a nutshell, whether the availability of PCs in the classroom will stimulate imagination and stimulate/stimulate learning motivation, the most important thing that people can imagine is to use their class time . The Internet can benefit craft educators by enabling them to find more information about masters in the history of crafts or the vicinity of the period, allowing them to connect with other experts, and supporting today’s aversion to the expression classroom . In addition, past surveys have enabled teachers to utilize visual materials, such as pictures, blurbs, models, and computers, which have been shown to make courses more attractive and locked in . The use of visual materials for teaching can make words have more specific meanings, clearly show the connections and connections between thoughts, provide valuable communication channels and solid oral information and key pictures in the students' minds, and provide extracurricular learning more curiosity . Video-based devices are considered suitable for inspiring successful instruction and exchange of information around learning standards and are therefore considered as possible proficiency advanced tools. In addition, based on the results of students' reactions to the modules, the artistic component will make the learning environment more curious and pleasant. Open-minded Eisner  stated that the rise of enthusiasm and mindfulness caused by handicraft components and the stimulation of creativity will encourage students to achieve learning goals and improve learning outcomes through expression, enthusiasm, and sympathetic understanding.
3.9. Execution of Techno-Pedagogy in Science Classroom
Students often lose interest in science after entering elementary school , and games are very helpful in attracting and motivating students. Game-based learning may be a guiding strategy in which learners obtain and apply information by transferring games, although guided gamification is the application of entertainment components in learning persuasion learning . Due to the ubiquity of data and communication innovation (ICT), computer innovation, and computer-driven devices, the need for specialization has completely changed. Due to these changes, the improvement of talents in the 21st century is becoming more and more important for future work and life . The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Science (STEM) directives play a vital role in supporting the development of these capabilities and coordinating with other capabilities and material information . Innovative tools with instructive significance, such as computers, test products, information collection and survey procedures, advanced magnifying glass, hypermedia/multimedia, under-researched response frameworks, and intuitive whiteboards, can provide help to effectively participate in research to ensure the safety and promote the development of nature of science and requirements. When there is appropriate and feasible use of innovative teaching equipment in science classrooms, research will effectively lock in its information development and advance its ability to think and solve problems . At present, science teaching staff can use many modern teaching innovation pieces of equipment. In any case, it is still a challenge for most lecturers to transform coordinated innovation into lectures. Agreeing with McCrory's scientific guidance, they must obtain satisfactory scientific information to help students build an understanding of different scientific concepts. In order to meet the specific needs of students, teachers should have a wealth of information and understand general learning deficiencies. The teacher’s general understanding of the information encourages people to improve the program to resolve students’ early information about specific scientific concepts and misunderstandings in science . Having satisfactory educational information can enable lecturers to successfully educate specific scientific concepts for specific research objects. Lecturers with solid academic information will use successful lecturer skills to formulate well-designed lesson plans, use effective classroom management methods, and develop an understanding of under-learned learning . Chemistry is one of the most important key disciplines in science. It contains many theoretical concepts. These concepts require complex concepts, many of which are not clearly related outside the classroom . For a long time in the past, ICT has been coordinated in many chemistry courses. This is nothing more than putting the book on the screen, which has shown beneficial benefits, for example, showing a positive attitude toward science and improving students' inspiration through enjoyable learning methods (including the intuitiveness of the student's computer). Joining ICT can improve students' understanding of chemical concepts, hypotheses, and atomic structures. Another consideration seems to be that ICT-enhanced learning has a positive impact on students’ chemistry scores, enabling undergraduates to effectively lock in these situations and providing visualization of human learning in small and large-scale worlds .
3.10. Challenges to Use Techno-Pedagogy in Teaching
Effective integration of technology and pedagogy has endless benefits. It can be recognized that techno-pedagogy upgrades way better instruction instead of straightforward instruction but there are various challenges .
3.10.1. Need for Preparing Teachers through Training
Today's educator instruction program falls flat to supply viable introduction toward technology integration into teaching. In-service instructors moreover need techno-pedagogical aptitude as they have not been prepared to coordinate technology with pedagogy. The need for proficient improvement and leadership support is the most challenging .
3.10.2. Need for Information around ICT
This gets to be the greatest obstruction in creating techno-pedagogical aptitude as this is often the preimperative for successfully joining natural products of innovation to one’s classroom teaching. A few instructors have a negative demeanor toward the utilization of ICT in educating. Analysts have decided that there are negative convictions that influence teachers’ or preservice teachers’ successful execution of innovation integration in terms of techno-pedagogical ability .
3.10.3. Need for Infrastructural Facilities
Even in spite of the fact that an instructor has sound information of technology and ways to coordinate it with instructional methods but the need for appropriate offices like computers, projectors, and screens will become a hurdle to release tech-based enlightening. Due to the need for assets, instructors are reluctant to utilize innovation in classes .
3.10.4. Need for Specialized Assistance
A single instructor may not be competent in taking care of both hardware and software parts during coordination innovation in teaching-learning preparation. He or she might require a few specialized help from somebody who is in fact competent. All the instructive teachers may not have this office. In such a situation, the educator gets to be hesitant to utilize innovation in teaching.
3.10.5. Need for Support and Coordination
There will be lots of contact between instructors with techno-pedagogical aptitude and teachers without them. Such contact leads to clashes among divisions and directors. Not each administration permits instructors to test with their understudies. In such circumstances, instructors feel demotivated and debilitated.
3.10.6. Power Issues and Network Issues
Power outages and hose replacements can potentially affect the use of technical teaching expertise. This must be the cause of damage to computers and other consumables at work, which intensifies the technical syllabus . The network is the biggest challenge of the exhibition. Indeed, despite organizing suppliers to work around the clock to solve this cliché, it is still the challenge of publishing innovation-based education.
3.11. Enhancing Techno-Pedagogical Skill among Teachers
The challenges confronted by the teachers to effectively coordinate technology and pedagogy in this manner improving their techno-pedagogical ability can be exterminated by adopting the following suggestions.
3.11.1. Appropriate Training Facilities
Preservice and in-service training has got to be given to the teachers to create techno-pedagogical abilities. There is a prompt requirement of recognizable proof of techno-pedagogic abilities and preparing the understudy instructors on these abilities at different levels of instructor instruction . Workshops, seminars, conferences, and webinars should be organized exclusively to energize the instructors to be techno-pedagogues instead of fair pedagogues.
3.11.2. Positive Demeanor toward Technology
The mentality of the lecturer may be the main enabling/disabling of computing within the scope of technology use. Lecturers who have a positive attitude toward innovation will feel more comfortable, and in the process of using it, they tend to participate more in innovation education . Therefore, instructors must change their views and be honest and rational in preparation to acknowledge the fact that technical teaching skills are essential.
3.11.3. Upgrade ICT Abilities
Having sound information, approximate data, and communication innovation is exceptionally basic to create techno-pedagogical ability. It incorporates information around both equipment and computer program components and aptitudes to utilize those . ICT proficient improvement could be a nonstop deep-rooted preparation of individual development .
3.11.4. Arrangement of Specialized Help
Educational teachers ought to make arrangements for specialized help to instructors. Educators can designate a full-time or part-time specialist who is actually sound, able of situating the instructors from time to time, and give help at whatever point required.
3.11.5. Support and Coordination
There ought to be a legitimate understanding between all the instructing staff and the head of the institution. The administration ought to advance innovation-based instruction and permit instructors to test with innovation by giving all the assets that are required which in turn fortifies teachers’ techno-pedagogical expertise.
3.11.6. Tending to Network and Control Issues
Institutions ought to have offices of inverters or UPS so as to supply uninterrupted control supply within the campus. There ought to be a Wi-Fi office within the institution and the speed of the Web ought to be in worthy range.
4. Educational Implications
The literature review provides an opportunity for cooperation between extracurricular exercises (such as testing and dramatization) and can participate in the expansion of their technical teaching method capabilities among science and art instructors. Additionally, science and art instructors can receive the level of understanding and intelligence of education, not the level of information of education. In addition, this review can motivate lecturers and teachers to participate effectively in presentations and open organization plans to create their expertise in technical teaching methods. Moreover, education teachers can be recommended to take smaller risks than expected, in order to improve their technical teaching method ability and understanding of the technical teaching method expertise and its characteristics.
The best educators bring different experiences and reference outlines to the classroom. In today's situation, educators who use innovation in teaching and learning play a vital role. Technology has improved learning, making teaching and learning more curious. Therefore, it is necessary to further expand the lecturer's technical teaching ability so that the technical teaching method has a positive attitude. The technical teaching method may be the key choice of the metateaching cross-method. In the past two decades, the development of technical teaching ability has been considered in the higher teaching framework in the world. The use of technical teaching skills can eliminate some of the stimuli and instructive avoidance barriers that lead to poor achievement and insufficient learning. Although it is necessary to arrange and execute activities to improve some technical teaching skills in higher education, the investigation of the current situation has found many components that hinder the technical integration of higher education. Separate from innovation-related methods, government and higher education will acquire methodologies that create viable technical teaching capabilities, media arrangements, and support capabilities. Finally, innovation can never replace high-quality education. Without technical education talents, no electronic transmission can achieve outstanding results.
Data is not applicable to this manuscript since it is a review paper.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
N. Thakur, “A study on implementation of techno-pedagogical skills, its challenges and role to release at higher level of education,” American International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Social Science, vol. 9, no. 2, 2015.View at: Google Scholar
B. Bhattacharjee and K. Deb, “Role of ICT in 21st century’s teacher education,” International Journal of Education and Information Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2016.View at: Google Scholar
S. Ghavifekr, M. Afshari, and S. Amla, “Management strategies for E-Learning system as the core component of systemic change: a qualitative analysis,” Life Science Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2190–2196, 2012.View at: Google Scholar
Davies S. and Pittard V.. 2009. Harnessing Technology Review 2009. The Role of Technology in Education and Skills.
R. Gloria and A. E. Benjamin, “Attitude of teachers towards techno-pedagogy,” International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 87–89, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
M. H. Bhuyan, “Practices of online teaching, learning and assessment of the students of the BSc in EEE programme during the COVID-2019 pandemic,” Contemporary Educational Research Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 14–28, 2021.View at: Google Scholar
Y. H. Lee, “Facilitating critical thinking using the C-QRAC collaboration script: enhancing science reading literacy in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment,” Computers & Education, vol. 88, pp. 182–191, 2015.View at: Google Scholar
M. Tebbutt, “ICT in science: problems, possibilities and principles?” School Science Review, vol. 81, no. 297, pp. 57–64, 2000.View at: Google Scholar
N. Pachler, B. Bachmair, and J. Cook, Mobile Learning: Structures, Agency, Practices, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
E. M. Mercier and S. E. Higgins, “Collaborative learning with multi-touch technology: developing adaptive expertise,” Learning and Instruction, vol. 25, pp. 13–23, 2013.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
R. Gurukkal, “Techno-Pedagogy Needs Mavericks,” 2021.View at: Google Scholar
B. Courts and J. Tucker, “Using technology to create a dynamic classroom experience,” Journal of College Teaching & Learning, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 121–128, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
H. E. Pence, A. J. Williams, and R. E. Belford, “New tools and challenges for chemical education: mobile learning, augmented reality, and distributed cognition in the dawn of the social and semantic web,” Chemistry Education: Best Practices, Opportunities and Trends, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
D. Curtis and M. J. Lawson, “Exploring collaborative online learning,” Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 21–34, 2001.View at: Google Scholar
S. Lathuilliere, B. Masse, P. Mesego, and R. Horaud, “Neural network-based reinforcement learning for audio-visual gaze control in human-robot interaction,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 118, pp. 61–71, 2019.View at: Google Scholar
S. Atikah and J. M. Spector, “A systematic literature review of personalized learning terms,” Smart Learning Environments, vol. 7, no. 1, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
K. Fuchs, N. Aghaee, and M. Ferati, “Merits of the technology-enhanced flipped classroom (TEFC) concept in higher education,” in Proceedings of the Norsk IKT-Konferanse for Forskning Og Utdanning, Hønefoss, Norway, 2020 November.View at: Google Scholar
P. Bala and M. Education, “An examination of techno-pedagogical competence and anxiety towards the use of instructional aids in teaching among senior secondary school teachers,” International Educational Journal, vol. 3, p. 20, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
I. Kabakci Yurdakul, H. F. Odabasi, K. Kilicer, A. N. Coklar, G. Birinci, and A. A. Kurt, “The development, validity and reliability of TPACK-deep: a technological pedagogical content knowledge scale,” Computers & Education, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 964–977, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
L. S. Shulman, “Those who understand: a conception of teacher knowledge,” American Educator, vol. 10, no. 1, 1986.View at: Google Scholar
P. Mishra and M. J. Koehler, “Technological pedagogical content knowledge: a framework for teacher knowledge,” Teachers College Record, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 1017–1054, 2006.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. J. Koehler and P. Mishra, “What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge,” Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 131–152, 2005.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. Koehler and P. Mishra, “What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)?” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 60–70, 2009.View at: Google Scholar
T. K. R. Singh and S. Chan, “Teacher readiness on ICT integration in teaching-learning: a Malaysian case study,” International Journal of Asian Social Science, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 874–885, 2014.View at: Google Scholar
J. A. Beck and H. C. Wynn, “Technology in teacher education: progress along the continuum,” ERIC Digest, vol. 11, no. 2, 1998.View at: Google Scholar
M. L. Niess, “Preparing teachers to teach science and mathematics with technology: developing a technology pedagogical content knowledge,” Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 509–523, 2005.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
J. Margerum-Leys and R. W. Marx, “Teacher knowledge of educational technology: a case study of student/mentor teacher pairs,” Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 427–462, 2002.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. E. Pierson, “Technology integration practice as a function of pedagogical expertise,” Journal of Research on Computing in Education, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 413–430, 2001.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
P. Mishra and M. J. Koehler, “Designing learning from day one: a first day activity to foster design thinking about educational technology,” Teachers College Record, (in press).View at: Google Scholar
Y. Zhao, Ed.in What Teachers Should Now about Technology: Perspectives and Practices, Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT, USA, 2003.
M. Niess and J. Garofalo, “Preparing teachers to teach mathematics with technology: key issues, concerns and research questions,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, pp. 3796–3801, San Deigo, CF, USA, 2006, March.View at: Google Scholar
M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, “Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research,” Philosophy and Rhetoric, vol. 10, no. 2, 1977.View at: Google Scholar
F. D. Davis, “Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology,” MIS Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 319–340, 1989.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
F. D. Davis and V. Venkatesh, “A critical assessment of potential measurement biases in the technology acceptance model: three experiments,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 19–45, 1996.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
T. Teo, “Examining the influence of subjective norm and facilitating conditions on the intention to use technology among pre-service teachers: a structural equation modeling of an extended technology acceptance model,” Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 253–262, 2010.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. Mailizar, A. Almanthari, and S. Maulina, “Examining teachers' behavioral intention to use E-learning in teaching of mathematics: an extended TAM model,” Contemporary Educational Technology, vol. 13, no. 2, p. ep298, 2021.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
R. Estriegana, J.-A. Medina-Merodio, and R. Barchino, “Student acceptance of virtual laboratory and practical work: an extension of the technology acceptance model,” Computers & Education, vol. 135, pp. 1–14, 2019.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
B. Sumak, M. Hericko, and M. Pusnik, “A meta-analysis of e-learning technology acceptance: the role of user types and e-learning technology types,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 2067–2077, 2011.View at: Google Scholar
Ö. Efiloğlu Kurt and Ö. Tingöy, “The acceptance and use of a virtual learning environment in higher education: an empirical study in Turkey, and the UK,” International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 26, 2017.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
K. R. M. Rafiq, H. Hashim, M. M. Yunus, and F. N. Pazilah, “Gamified-learning to teach ESL grammar: students’ perspective,” Religación, vol. 4, pp. 181–186, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
V. Venkatesh, M. G. Morris, G. B. Davis, and F. D. Davis, “User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view,” MIS Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 425–478, 2003.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
V. Venkatesh, J. Y. Thong, and X. Xu, “Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology,” MIS Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 157–178, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
K. Tamilmani, N. P. Rana, N. Prakasam, and Y. K. Dwivedi, The Battle of Brain vs. Heart: A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of “hedonic motivation” use in UTAUT2, University of Braford, Braford, England, 2019.
R. Scherer, F. Siddiq, and J. Tondeur, “The technology acceptance model (TAM): a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach to explaining teachers' adoption of digital technology in education,” Computers & Education, vol. 128, pp. 13–35, 2019.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
B. Sezer, “Examining techno pedagogical knowledge competencies of teachers in terms of some variables,” Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 174, pp. 208–215, 2014.View at: Google Scholar
A. R. Saravanakumar, “Role of ICT on enhancing quality of education,” International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 717–719, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
A. M. Jazeel and A. R. Saravanakumar, “Infusion of ICT tools for enhancing the quality of teacher education in Sri Lanka,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Educational Technology: Implications and Future Directions, Tiruchirappalli, India, August 2014.View at: Google Scholar
D. Bebell, M. Russell, and L. O’Dwyer, “Measuring teachers’ technology uses,” Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 45–63, 2004.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
G. M. Morrison and D. L. Lowther, Integrating Computer Technology into the Classroom, Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 4 edition, 2010.
S. E. Smaldino, D. L. Lowther, J. D. Russell, and C. Mims, Instructional Technology and Media for Learning, Pearson Merrill/Prentice Hall, New Jersey, HO, USA, 2008.
L. O’Dwyer, M. Russell, and D. Bebel, Elementary Teachers’ Use of Technology: Characteristics of Teachers, Schools, and Districts Associated with Technology Use, Technology and Assessment Study Collaborative, Boston College, Boston, MA, USA, 2004.
W. I. Robinson, External, and Internal Factors Which Predict Teachers’ Computer Usage in K-12 Classrooms, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA, 2003.
S. Dexter, A. H. Doering, and E. S. Riedel, “Content area specific technology integration: a model for educating teachers,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 325–345, 2006.View at: Google Scholar
P. A. Ertmer, “Teacher pedagogical beliefs: the final Frontier in our quest for technology integration?” Educational Technology Research & Development, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 25–39, 2005.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. Altun, “The integration of technology into foreign language teaching,” International Journal on New Trends in Education and their Implications, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2015.View at: Google Scholar
S. Bax, “Normalisation revisited,” International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1–15, 2011.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. A. M. Kassem, “Balancing technology with pedagogy in English language classroom: teachers' perspective,” International Journal of English Language Teaching, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1–19, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
J. W. Santrock, Educational Psychology, The McGraw-Hill companies, Inc, New York, NY, USA, 2 edition, 2004.
A. Alawad, “Technologies in the art classroom: using technologies in art classrooms to overcome cultural limitations to support teaching and learning,” Journal of Fine and Studio Art, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2013.View at: Google Scholar
S. B. Kajder, “The tech-savvy English classroom,” Education Review, vol. 52, 2003.View at: Google Scholar
Z. A. A. Ahmed, English Lexical Collocation Knowledge of Libyan University Students, Bangor University, Bangor, UK, 2012.
J. W. Mwakapina, A. S. Mhandeni, and O. S. Nyinondi, “WhatsApp mobile tool in second language learning: opportunities, potentials and challenges in higher education settings in Tanzania,” International Journal of English Language Education, vol. 4, no. 2, 2016.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
C. Barhoumi, “The effectiveness of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students’ knowledge management,” Contemporary educational technology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 221–238, 2015.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
S. Sahin and E. Turan, “The effects and uses of educational technology in learning and teaching,” Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 321–330, 2009.View at: Google Scholar
D. Heise and N. F. Grandgenett, “Perspectives on the use of internet in art classrooms,” Art Education, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 12–18, 1996.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. Peat and A. Fernandez, “The role of information technology in biology education: an Australian perspective,” Journal of Biological Education, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 69–73, 2000.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
A. Çimer, “Effective teaching in science: a review of literature,” Journal of Turkish Science Education, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 24–44, 2007.View at: Google Scholar
E. W. Eisner, The Arts and the Creation of Mind, Yale University Press, London, UK, 2008.
C. Murphy, M. Mullaghy, and A. D’Arcy, “‘Scientists are not always right, but they do their best.’Irish children’s perspectives of innovations in science teaching and learning,” School Science Review, vol. 98, no. 362, pp. 55–65, 2016.View at: Google Scholar
R. Al-Azawi, F. Al-Faliti, and M. Al-Blushi, “Educational gamification vs. game based learning: comparative study,” International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 132–136, 2016.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
J. Voogt and N. P. Roblin, “A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21stcentury competences: implications for national curriculum policies,” Journal of Curriculum Studies, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 299–321, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
A. Schleicher, Preparing Teachers and Developing School Leaders for the 21st Century: Lessons from Around the World, OECD Publishing, Paris, France, 2012.
L. W. Trowbridge, R. W. Bybee, and J. C. Powell, Teaching Secondary School Science: Strategies for Developing Scientific Literacy, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 9 edition, 2008.
R. McCrory, “Science, technology, and teaching: the topic-specific challenges of TPCK in science,” in Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for Educators, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2008.View at: Google Scholar
H. Özmen, “The influence of computer-assisted instruction on students' conceptual understanding of chemical bonding and attitude toward chemistry: a case for Turkey,” Computers & Education, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 423–438, 2008.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
U. Wilensky, “Statistical mechanics for secondary school: the GasLab multi-agent modeling toolkit,” International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–41, 2003.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. I. Monsiváis Almada, L. McAnally Salas, and G. Lavigne, “Aplicació i validació d'un model tecnopedagògic de formació docent mitjançant una plataforma educativa virtual,” RUSC. Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 91, 2014.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
J. Rabah, “Benefits and challenges of information and communication technologies (ICT) integration in québec English schools,” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 24–31, 2015.View at: Google Scholar
C. Yildiz, “The factors affecting techno-pedagogical competencies and critical thinking skills of preservice mathematics teachers,” Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 16, 2017.View at: Google Scholar
M. Carnoy, “Education for all and the quality of education: a reanalysis,” 2005, background paper for EFA Global Monitoring Report.View at: Google Scholar
N. A. N. Lyonga, G. E. Moluayonge, and A. J. Nkeng, “A study of techno-pedagogical skills and teachers’ performance in HTTTC kumba, Cameroon,” Eur. J. Educ. Pedagogy, vol. 2, no. 1, 2021.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
K. M. Leema and T. M. Saleem, “Infusion of techno pedagogy in elementary teacher education curriculum: perspectives and challenges,” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 6–10, 2017.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar